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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 208

Опубликовано на портале: 04-12-2006
Вячеслав Леонидович Глазычев Социологический журнал. 1994.  № 3. С. 94-102. 
Автор, руководитель независимой Академии городской среды, делится своим планом создать компьютерную учебную игру — пособие по развитию городской среды. В ее основу должны лечь результаты исследования, проведенного автором в 1993 г. по заказу Министерства культуры РФ, — «Культурный потенциал города: техника развития». В качестве «прототипа» своего виртуального пособия автор рассматривает американскую игру SimCity Classic.
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Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2006
Семен Геннадьевич Павлюк, Ирина Попова, Федор Попов, Сергей Валерьевич Рассказов, Семен Фрейдлин Communitas / Сообщество. 2005.  № 2. С. 26-67. 
В статье, написанной по материалам летней практики 2004 г. кафедры социально-экономической географии зарубежных стран географического факультета МГУ, Тверская область рассматривается как дробное полицентричное пространство, обильно нагруженное историческими и историко-географическими смыслами; прежде всего – как совокупность границ и периферий. Для того, чтобы рассказать читателю обо всем многообразии и неоднозначности увиденного, авторы попытались «поиграть» точками зрения, ракурсами, методологическими стратегиями, масштабами, уровнями теоретизирования, что прямо отразилось на структуре текста. Первая его часть («Показатели: зоны тяготения к городским центрам на территории Тверской области») выдержана в классическом стиле «позитивистской» географии – авторы смотрят на человеческие сообщества, отталкиваясь от статистических данных – как на массы трудящихся, потребителей, мигрантов. В следующем разделе («Люди и образы: вернакулярные районы Тверской области») регион показан глазами его обитателей; повествуется о том, как люди творят и обживают свое пространство. Статью завершают три case-study – меньше теоретических конструкций и больше живых людей, рассказов из истории, личных мнений и переживаний – это личный взгляд авторов на Торжок, Кашин и северо-восточный угол области, «Бежецкий верх».
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Richard Lawton
London, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992, 224 с.
The great cities of Europe and North America experienced unparalleled growth in the late 19th century and first three quarters of the 20th century on the basis of mercantile and industrial prosperity. Suddenly, as economic structures and urban functions have changed, the role of the city has dramatically altered, with sometimes painful consequences for urban populations, fabric and economies. Urban historian Professor Lawton has brought together a group of distinguished scholars to examine the changing nature of the "urban fact" within a comparative framework. The scope of the book is both historical and contemporary with the lessons for the future kept clearly in view. The book opens with a broad analysis of the nature of urbanization in the West between AD 1800-2000, charting the main forces that have shaped cities in the period. Individual chapters from leading urbanists follow the themes through in detail dealing in turn with urban economies, planning, attitudes to urban life, commercial structures, population, public health, housing, recent extensions of the "city region" and the future role of cities as hubs of a global information network. As both prospect and retrospect, this book provides a comment and summary of modern western urbanism which will be of interest to social scientists and historians concerned with cities.

Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Robert William Thurston
USA: Oxford University Press, 1987, 286 с.
Between 1906 and the outbreak of World War I, Moscow was the locale of great uncertainty and experimentation. Moscow's liberal leaders sought social and political stability for their city following the violence of the 1905 revolution by offering attractive programs in education, employment, housing and other areas to Moscow's unruly lower classes. They were countered in their efforts, however, by central authorities of the Old Regime, who feared the political effects of these programs and stressed social rigidity. Liberal City, Conservative State examines the resulting clash between the city and the state as it brought to the surface and exacerbated the deep tensions plaguing Russia by the eve of World War I. It focuses on the roots of this dispute, juxtaposing the Old Regime's rural background and orientation with the urban concerns of Moscow's liberals, and sees the state's essential failure in its inability to come to terms with the realities of urban life and growth. Providing new perspectives and insights into Russian liberalism, the scope and urgency of urban problems, and the importance of tsarist ideology in conditioning development after 1905, Moscow's story sheds light on the unsolved dilemmas and contradictions that pushed Russia inexorably toward revolution.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Max Weber
Москва: Канон-пресс-Ц, Кучково поле, 2001, 576 с.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Татьяна Григорьевна Нефедова, Павел Маркович Полян, Андрей Ильич Трейвиш
Москва: ОГИ, 2001, 558 с.
Вышедшая в 1910 году и ставшая классической книга В. П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского “Город и деревня в Европейской России” подводит итоги сельского и городского расселения накануне XX века. С той поры прошел целый век. Настоящая книга - это попытка проследить и понять вековые тренды, подвести итоги развития города и деревни в Европейской части России накануне уже XXI столетия. Это потребовало не просто сверки и сличения данных за начало и конец века, не просто верификации данных и прогнозов, сделанных самим В. П. Семеновым-Тян-Шанским, но и радикального, в соответствии с изменившимися требованиями, пересмотра концептуального и методического арсенала исследования. Эмпирически в книге рассматриваются основные демогеографические итоги уходящего столетия, стадии расселения, урбанизации и индустриализации, стабильные черты рисунка расселения, основные предпосылки и результаты экономического развития городов, преемственность и изменения в сельской местности, проникновение горожан в деревню и сохранение сельских черт городами, политическая и религиозная специфика города и деревни. Многочисленные карты, таблицы и статистические приложения позволяют провести сравнительный анализ состояния городов и деревни в начале и конце ХХ века. Книга адресована научным работникам, преподавателям и студентам, а также политикам и лицам, принимающим решения.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Ольга Е. Трущенко
Москва: УРСС, 1995, 112 с.
Книга вводит читателя в проблематику городской социальной сегрегации. Излагается социологическая концепция престижных адресов как продуктов обособленного расселения социально господствующих групп. Анализируются тенденции социальной сегрегации в Москве в досоветский и советский период. Основное внимание уделено определившей престиж Центра динамике социального состава населения в черте Садового кольца за последние тридцать лет. Книга адресована социологам, социальным географам и другим специалистам, занимающимся проблемами Москвы.
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Writings on Cities [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Henri Lefebvre, Elizabeth Le Bas
Изд-во: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1995, 264 с.
The work of Henri Lefebvre - the only major French intellectual of the post-war period to give extensive consideration to the city and urban life - received considerable attention among both academics and practitioners of the built environment following the publication in English of The Production of Space. This new collection brings together, for the first time in English, Lefebvre's reflections on the city and urban life written over a span of some twenty years.The selection of writings is contextualized by an introduction - itself a significant contribution to the interpretation of Henri Lefebvre's work - which places the material within the context of Lefebvre's intellectual and political life and times and raises pertinent issues as to their relevance for contemporary debates over such questions as the nature of urban reality, the production of space and modernity.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Rita Caccamo
Изд-во: Stanford University Press, 2001, 176 с.
Published in 1929, Robert Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd's "Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture" was destined to become a sociological point of reference for the quality of life in an average American town in the 1920s. Their Middletown in Transition, a 1937 restudy of the same community now known to be Muncie, Indiana provided a second point of reference on community values in the midst of the great American depression. Achieving the status of cultural benchmarks, these two books have generated an enormous secondary literature on Muncie/Middletown, including a two-volume restudy by Theodore Caplow, published in the 1980s, and a series of six documentary films. Back to Middletown differs from the numerous other investigations and analyses of one of the most famous community studies in the history of sociology. The author, an Italian sociologist, examines the complete Middletown saga through the distinctive lens of an outsider, tracing the character and evolution of middle America from the Lynds' time down to the present. She has been resourceful and meticulous in her discovery of previously unknown sources data, documents, and correspondence that shed new light on the formation and elaboration of the Lynds Middletown project and on the changing evaluation of the project by generations of scholars.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Joseph Rykwert
Изд-во: Oxford University Press, 2004, 320 с.
The subtitle to this, the tenth book by architecture professor (and lively writer) Joseph Rykwert--namely, "The City in the Twenty-First Century and Beyond"--is a whopping misnomer. It is only in the final chapter that Rykwert pays attention (and briskly, even then) to urban developments of recent years and to what we might expect in the 100 years to come. What this book really is, despite what its subtitlers intended, is at once a broad-ranging and satisfyingly detailed social history of some of the great cities of the modern world (mostly the Western one, with a marked emphasis on the two cities Rykwert calls home--New York and London--plus Paris) and an inquiry into how well they have served the material and spiritual lives of the people who inhabit them.

Ranging comfortably and coherently back and forth between the Old World and the New, Rykwert begins with the Industrial Revolution, its factories, the throngs of poor country people that flooded the cities to work in them, and the subsequent 150-year challenge faced by urban centres to house, transport and entertain these throngs cheaply, space-consciously and hygienically. But Seduction of Place is not so much a people's history of the city as it is a vibrantly researched and chronicled play-by-play of the big public--and some private--works of the major metropolises. The book also tackles the luminaries--including Haussmann, Olmstead and Vaux, L'Enfant, and Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand (who pioneered the enduring school of axial planning at Paris' Ecole Polytechnique)--whose names are often uttered in the same breath as the parks, boulevards and edifices they brought to life.

Social critics like Tocqueville, Marx, Engels, Fourier and Ruskin are just as well represented here, however, ably providing the basis for Rykwert's persistent question of what cities ought to be and how responses to that have diverged and evolved over the years, apart from what they have become, for better or ill, and how they got that way. Even though the book takes a more or less familiar course through the 20th century--from the emergence of subways, skyscrapers, and modernism through post-war urban planning, suburban sprawl, and subsequent urban decay and attempts at renewal--Rykwert knows when to dart away from well-known people, places and things to chronicle the planning of lesser-known English "New Towns" or of distinctly 20th-century cities like New Delhi, Islamabad, Australia's Canberra, and--rather famously--Brasilia, the ultimate "zoned" city.

The final chapter pays the requisite nod to the postmodernist implications of, for example, Celebration, Florida, (Disney's controversial new spin on the "company town") but is really distinguished by Rykwert's startlingly on-the-mark reading of how such wildly popular mega-museums as the new international Guggenheim franchise (with Gehry's Bilbao "branch" currently eclipsing Wright's New York "flagship") have come to best personify the encroachment of corporate globalisation in the urban civic realm. It is a fitting conclusion for a book that manages so gracefully to wed an engrossing history of urban growth with the deeper intellectual, cultural and ethical questions it raises--the very questions that the speculators, preservationists and "ordinary citizens" will still have to answer in creating and sustaining the great cities of the 21st century. --Timothy Murphy --
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Scott Campbell, Susan S. Fainstein
Изд-во: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2003, 488 с.
The second edition of this very successful volume examines the current state of planning theory and the new directions it has taken in recent years. The editors have selected a set of classic and contemporary writings to address a central question: What role can planning theory play in making the good city and region within the constraints of a capitalist political economy and a democratic political system? The volume draws on a wide range of authors who address planning history, arguments for and against planning, competing planning styles, planning ethics, the public interest, and considerations of race and gender. Theoretical perspectives include political economy, postmodernism, communicative rationality, and feminism. Readings new to this edition examine themes emerging in planning theory, including a critique of the modernist roots of centralized planning, a reemphasis on space in planning, and a discussion of the difficulty of sustainable development. The second edition also features new case studies of planning success and failure in both the United States and the United Kingdom.In this second edition of Readings in Planning Theory the editors retain 10 of the 28 original readings from the first edition. Four other readings have been updated with more recent writings from the same author (the opening introduction and the chapters by Fainstein, Krumholz and Healey). Thirteen readings are wholly new.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Jane Jacobs
Vintage, 1970, 288 с.
The book advances two propositions, one in the field of archaeology, the other in economics. Traditional archaeologists had always presumed that a city could only appear where there was enough food for a great number of inhabitants not producing food exclusively to exist. Hence, agriculture logically preceded the city. Jacobs argues that the opposite is true. It is through trade in wild animals and grains that people in cities discovered agriculture and then exported it (like our modern factory towns) to the outskirts of the city itself. In this work Jacobs also tackles the question of economic booms. Great cities with flourishing economies have had one of these economic booms. She asserts that it is through import replacement that cities have such economic growth. She also asserts that cities are at the root of all economic growth (agricultural, manufacturing, technology, information, etc) and therefore import replacement is the cause to all economic growth. In an interview with Bill Steigerwald in Reason Magazine (06/01), Jacobs said that if she is remembered for being a great intellectual she will be remembered not for her work concerning city planning, but for the discovery of import replacement.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Saskia Sassen
Pine Science Press, 2006, 288 с.
The Third Edition of Cities in a World Economy shows how certain characteristics of our turn-of-the-millennium flows of money, information, and people have led to the emergence of a new social formation: global cities. These developments give new meaning to such fixtures of urban sociology as the centrality of place and the importance of geography in our social world.

Key Features:

Offers a multidisciplinary perspective: This book features a cross-disciplinary approach to Urban Sociology using global examples. With both depth and clarity, this book examines the impact of global processes on the social structure of cities helping students increase their world awareness. In addition, the book strikes the perfect balance between maintaining academic rigor and employing new and innovative concepts. Includes a new chapter: The new chapter on Global Cities and Global Survival Circuits discusses the highly gendered and unequal nature of the global city and how it forces the underprivileged to live a dangerous and unpredictable life on global survival circuits. Incorporates the most recent data: This new edition updates nearly every piece of data with the most recent facts and figures available. In addition, this book introduces new concepts for understanding contemporary urban sociology.

About the Author
Saskia Sassen is the Ralph Lewis Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago and Centennial Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics. Her recent books are Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages (Princeton 2006), the co-edited Digital Formations (2005) , the edited Global Neworks, Linked Cities (2002), and Guests and Aliens (1999). Her books have been translated into 16 languages. She is the editor of the volume on urban sustainability in the new 14-volume Encyclopedia of Life-Systems being produced by UNESCO and EOLSS (2006), for which she coordinated a network of researchers and activists in thirty countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Robert Park, Ernest W. Burgess, Roderick D. McKenzie
Изд-во: University of Chicago Press, 1984, 250 с.
The City, first published in 1925 and reprinted here in its entirety, is a cross-section of concerns of the Chicago urban school during the period of its most intense activity. Park and Burgess realized that ecological and economic factors were converted into a social organization by the traditions and aspirations of city dwellers. In their efforts to achieve objectivity, these sociologists never lost sight of the values that propel human beings
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Anthony Sutcliffe
Изд-во: University of Chicago Press, 1984, 468 с.
An ideal and welcome reference and reader for students of urbanism, Metropolis 1890-1940 examines perceptions of the city during the dramatic urban growth of this period. Metropolis looks at the policies adopted to deal with the new city and at the views of the city expressed in the art, architecture, literature, cinema, music, and ideology of the time. Internationally known experts discuss case studies of London, Paris, Berlin, the Ruhr, New York, Moscow, and Tokyo, and a postscript brings the reader up to date with a survey of postwar urbanism.

Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Richard C. Wade
Изд-во: University of Illinois Press, 1996, 384 с.
Wade's 1959 volume raised a few eyebrows: it insisted that early immigrants tried to transfer the traditions and culture of their countries of origin into the New World rather than establish an American identity, as was long proposed by other history volumes. This edition contains a new introduction by historian Zane Miller
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Arthur J. Vidich, Joseph Bensman
Изд-во: University of Illinois Press, 2000, 560 с.
"First published in 1958, "Small Town in Mass Society" set community studies on a new course by placing the small town within the framework of large-scale, bureaucratic mass society. Drawing attention to the dynamics of class and ethnicity in relation to economics and politics, this landmark work was among the first to document the consequences of centralized administration on life in American communities. Through a close study of ""Springdale, New York,"" Arthur J. Vidich and Joseph Bensman depict the small town as continuously and increasingly drawn into the central institutions and processes of the total society. Vidich and Bensman based their conclusions on extensive interviews with and close observation of the inhabitants of one community. The original publication of the book caused a sharp response among the town's citizens who felt their trust had been violated and their town misrepresented. The present volume includes the editorials and correspondence evoked by that controversy, the authors' articles describing their methodology, a new foreword by Michael W. Hughey, and a new afterword in which Arthur J. Vidich recounts the creation and history of the book."
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Daniel R. Brower
Изд-во: University of California Press, 1990, 267 с.
The Russian City Between Tradition and Modernity provides a comprehensive history of urban development in European Russia during the last half of the nineteenth century. Using both statistical perspectives on urbanization and cultural representations of the city, Brower constructs a synthetic view of the remaking of urban Russia. He argues that the reformed municipalities succeeded in creating an embryonic civil society among the urban elite but failed to fashion a unified, orderly city. By the end of the century, the cities confronted social disorder of a magnitude that resembled latent civil war. Drawing on a wide range of archival and published sources, including census materials and reports from municipal leaders and tsarist officials, Brower offers a new approach to the social history of Russia. The author emphasizes the impact of the massive influx of migrants on the country's urban centers, whose presence dominated the social landscape of the city. He outlines the array of practices by which the migrant laborers adapted to urban living and stresses the cultural barriers that isolated them from the well-to-do urban population. Brower suggests that future scholarship should pay particular attention to the duality between the sweeping visions of social progress of the elite and the unique practices of the urban workforce. This contradiction, he argues, offers a key explanation for the social instability of imperial Russia in the closing decades of the nineteenth century.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Blair A. Ruble
Изд-во: Cambridge University Press, 2001, 448 с.
By exploring and comparing North America's, Russia's, and Japan's 'second cities' - Chicago, Moscow, and Osaka - Second Metropolis discloses the extent to which social fragmentation, frequently viewed as an obstacle to democratic development, actually fostered a 'pragmatic pluralism' that nurtured pluralistic public policies. Such policies are explored through six case studies - the politics of street railways and charter reform in Chicago, adult education and housing in Moscow, and harbor revitalization and poverty alleviation in Osaka - that illustrate how even those with massive political and economic power were stymied by the complexity of their communities. Chicago, Moscow, and Osaka, though the products of very different nations and cultures, nonetheless shared an important experience of inclusive politics during an era of extraordinary growth and social diversity. The success of all three cities, which went well beyond mere survival, rested on a distinctive political resource: pragmatic pluralism.

• Provides a unique comparison of North America's, Russia's, and Japan's 'second cities' - Chicago, Moscow, and Osaka
• Focuses on the 1860s, a decade of wrenching political reform and social change in the United States, Russia, and Japan
• Shows how social fragmentation led to the development of pluralistic public policies rather than impeding democratic development
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Dennis Clark
Изд-во: Sheed and Ward, 1962
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