Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 1182

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Amartya Sen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 688 с.
Commodities and Capabilities presents a set of inter-related theses concerning the foundations of welfare economics, and in particular about the assessment of personal well-being and advantage. The argument presented focuses on the capability to function, i.e. what a person can do or can be, questioning in the process the more standard emphasis on opulence or on utility. In fact, a person's motivation behind choice is treated here as a parametric variable which may or may not coincide with the pursuit of self-interest. Given the large number of practical problems arising from the roles and limitations of different concepts of interest and the judgement of advantage and well-being, this scholarly investigation is both of theoretical interest and practical import.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Anthony B. Atkinson
Oxford: Claredon Press, 1983, 2nd edition
The subject of this book is the distribution of income and wealth. It is concerned with incomes and needs, wages and profits, wealth and poverty. This book addresses conceptual problems of measuring income distribution, empirical estimates, earning and wealth distributions. Additionally, this book is concerned with policies for income maintenance.

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
David Lam
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1997, Volume 1B
This paper surveys a variety of areas in which demographic variables may play an important role in the distribution of income. The first issue considered is the relationship between age structure and inequality, analyzed in Section 2. In addition to its direct importance, the case of age structure is instructive because it demonstrates the need to carefully model the effects of compositional changes when working with measures of dispersion. While compositional effects on measures of dispersion are considerably more complex than compositional effects on means, they often lend themselves to useful analytical decompositions.

Many researchers argue that households, rather than individuals, should be used as the basis for analysis of the distribution of income. Using the household as the unit of analysis introduces a host of demographic issues relating to marriage, fertility, and household living arrangements. Section 3 focuses on the large literature that has analyzed the effects on the distribution of income among married couples of marital sorting and the joint labor supply behavior of husbands and wives. Section 4 extends the analysis beyond married couples to the household, analyzing issues related to the choice of recipient unit and the treatment of family size.

Another important topic with broad applications is the issue of changing population composition due to differential fertility, migration, and mortality by income classes. Section 5 analyzes the effects of differential fertility across income classes on the distribution of income. The analysis includes consideration of the role of intergenerational mobility across income classes.

Section 6 discusses the attention given to the effects of population growth on relative wages by the classical economists and considers theoretical issues in the link between changes in factor supplies and changes in the distribution of income. Empirical evidence on the link between population growth, wages, and inequality in historical and modern populations is briefly surveyed.

Section 7 discusses the substantial changes in wage inequality observed in the US in recent decades, and considers evidence on the role of demographic variables, especially age structure, in those changes. Most research suggests that changes in labor supply associated with the baby boom played a substantial role in some of the changes in relative wages observed in the 1970s and 1980s. The empirical evidence also demonstrates, however, that demographic variables are considerably less important than changes in the structure of labor demand. Section 8 concludes the paper.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Ред.: Martha Craven Nussbaum, Amartya Sen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993, 328 с.
This work addresses issues of defining and measuring the quality of life. Leading philosophers and economists examine recent developments in the philosophical definition of well-being and link them to practical issues such as the delivery of health care and the assessment of women's quality of life. The volume reflects the growing need for interdisciplinary work as economists become more aware of fundamental philosophical questions and philosophers of the importance of linking theoretical enquiries to an understanding of complex practical problems.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
James E. Foster, Amartya Sen
Oxford: Claredon Press, 1997
In this classic text, first published in 1973, Amartya Sen relates the theory of welfare economics to the study of economic inequality. He presents a systematic treatment of the conceptual framework as well as the practical problems of measurement of inequality. In his masterful analysis, Sen assesses various approaches to measuring inequality and delineates the causes and effects of economic disparities. Containing the four lectures from the original edition as well as a new introduction, this timeless study is essential reading for economists, philosophers, and social scientists.

In a new introduction, Amartya Sen, jointly with James Foster, critically surveys the literature that followed the publication of this book, and also evaluates the main analytical issues in the appraisal of economic inequality and poverty.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Amartya Sen
Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1995, 224 с.
Sen (economics and philosophy, Harvard U.) shows how all the major approaches to the ethics of social arrangements demand equality of something, but not of the same thing. Because when some things are equal others are not, he argues, let us equalize higher and more basic values, such as the freedom to achieve objectives.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Theodore W. Schultz
Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2001, 158 с.
Book Info
A theoretical text examining the issue of morality in the economic markets, as it relates to market efficiency. The theory presented by the author focuses on the process of market interaction itself to prove that selfishness alone cannot provide for the common good, as suggested by Adam Smith. DLC: Economics - Moral and ethical aspects.

Book Description
In the late eighteenth century, Adam Smith significantly shaped the modern world by claiming that when people individually pursue their own interests, they are together led towards achieving the common good. But can a population of selfish people achieve the economic common good in the absence of moral constraints on their behavior? If not, then what are the moral conditions of market interaction which lead to economically efficient outcomes of trade? Answers to these questions profoundly affect basic concepts and principles of economic theory, legal theory, moral philosophy, political theory, and even judicial decisions at the appellate level. Walter Schultz illustrates the deficiencies of theories which purport to show that markets alone can provide the basis for efficiency. He demonstrates that efficient outcomes of market interaction cannot be achieved without moral normative constraints and then goes on to specify a set of normative conditions which make these positive outcomes possible.

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Ред.: Dominique van de Walle
USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, 248 с.
Queries whether public spending is meeting its objective of improving equity by promoting the redistribution of income, focusing on the meagerness of theoretical and analytic tools to guide policy makers. Contributors report evidence from rich and poor countries on the outcome of spending for education and health, cash transfers, food subsidies, and public employment. Others consider such aspects as the political economy of targeting, measurement tools, and administrative costs.

Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2004
Ruby K. Payne
USA, 2001, 205 с.
A Framework for Understanding Poverty was Dr. Ruby Payne's first book, written for teachers with adaptations for work and community members. Its purpose is to educate people about the differences that separate economic classes and then teaching them strategies to bridge those gulfs. Ruby discusses at length the social cues or "hidden rules" that govern how we think and interact in society – and the significance of those rules in a classroom. Other topics include why students from generational poverty often fear being educated, discipline interventions that improve behavior, and the eight resources that make a difference to success.

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Татьяна Щербакова Рубеж (альманах социальных исследований). 2003.  № 18. С. 111-126. 

ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Татьяна Бараулина Рубеж (альманах социальных исследований). 2003.  № 18. С. 65-110. 

ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2003
A. F. Shorrocks Econometrica. 1984.  Vol. 52. No. 6. P. 1369-1386. 
This paper examines the implications of imposing a weak aggregation condition on inequality indices, so that the overall inequality value can be computed from information concerning the size, mean, and inequality value of each population subgroup. It is shown that such decomposable inequality measures must be monotonic transformations of additively decomposable indices. The general functional form of decomposable indices is derived without assuming that the measures are differentiable. The analysis is suitable for extension to the many other kinds of indices for which a similar relationship between the overall index value and subaggregates is desirable.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2003
Anthony B. Atkinson, Lee Rainwater, Timothy Smeeding Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper Series. 1995.  No. 121.
The aim of this paper is to assemble empirical evidence about the personal distribution of income, and the trends in income inequality over time, in the countries of Europe in the 1980s. It encompasses fifteen European countries: the Nordic countries, Switzerland, and all 12 members of the European Community (in 1994) apart from Greece. The United States is included as a point of reference.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003
А.А. Болотова Общественные науки и современность. 2002.  № 1. С. 80-89. 
В статье рассматриваются проблемы взаимодействия человека с окружающей средой, переосмысления отношения его к природе. На этой волне в странах Западной Европы, Америки и в России возникают экологические движения, принимающие различные формы. Автор показывает, что на Западе цель этих движений – изменение повседневности. Общественные движения выдвигают программу изменения ценностей, воспитания экологического сознания, выработки экологического поведения. На государственном уровне принимаются международные программы, включающие концепцию устойчивого развития. Российские общественные движения экологической направленности сильно различаются по целям и идеологии: экополитические, экофилософские, образовательные, за охрану дикой природы и т. д. Автор вводит такой термин, как “позеленение” повседневности; отличительной чертой российских экологических движений она называет специальные стратегии – создание экопоселений.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Gary S. Fields, John C.H. Fei Econometrica. 1978.  Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 303-306. 
In this paper, we have developed an approach to inequality comparisons which differs from the conventional one. Beginning by postulating three axioms, we showed that the axiomatic system so constructed is sufficient to justify the Lorenz criterion for inequality comparisons. However, like the Lorenz criterion, the axiomatic system is incomplete. Past researchers have achieved completeness by the use of cardinal inequality measures. We showed that many but by no means all of the commonly used indices satisfy our three axioms. The ones which do satisfy the axioms agree on the ranking of distributions whose Lorenz curves do not intersect. However, when Lorenz curves do intersect, the various measures partition the income distribution space differently. Since the three axioms are insufficient to determine the specific partition to use, the use of any of the conventional measures implicitly accepts the additional welfare judgments associated with that measure. The key issue for inequality comparisons is the reasonableness of the ordering criterion, which in the case of cardinal measures is the index itself. An axiomatic approach is probably the ideal method for confronting this issue, because the reasonable properties (i.e., the axioms) are postulated explicitly. At minimum, this approach facilitates communication by enabling (and indeed requiring) one to set forth clearly his own viewpoints and value judgments for scrutiny by others. But in addition, to the extent that one person's judgments (such as those in our three axioms) are acceptable to others, controversies over inequality comparisons may be resolved. We have seen that our three axioms are incomplete insofar as they cannot determine the ordinal ranking uniquely. A feasible and desirable direction for future research is to investigate what further axioms could be introduced to complete the axiomatic system or at least to reduce further the zones of ambiguity. It is conceivable that beyond some point the search for new axioms may turn out to be unrewarding. In that case, inequality comparisons will always be subject to arbitary specifications of welfare weights. The selection of suitable weights by whatever reasonable criterion one cares to exercise is a less desirable but possibly more practical alternative than a strictly axiomatic approach. Our research has hopefully made clear that inequality comparisons cannot be made without adopting value judgments, explicit or otherwise, about the desirability of incomes accruing to persons at different positions in the income distribution. Even the Lorenz criterion, which permits us to rank the relative inequality of different distributions in only a fraction of the cases, embodies such judgments. The traditional inequality indices such as those considered in Section 3, to the extent they complete the ordering, embody some value judgments
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Simon Commander, Andrei Tolstopiatenko, Ruslan Yemtsov William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1997.  No. 42.
Among the many popular images of the Russian transition, none cast a more dramatic shadow than the apparently rapid transformation of an entire system from one characterised by low inequality and largely absent poverty to one marked by extremes of deprivation and prosperity. Once hailed as a salutary contrast to the extremes of well-being so characteristic of many economies at comparable levels of income, Russia now exhibits the tell-tale inequities that mark, for example, many Latin American economies. How accurate is this representation, both in its depiction of the situation pre-transition, let alone the consequences of recent changes? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions in as precise a manner as possible. The paper is organised as follows. Section 1 gives a brief description of the datasets — primarily the six rounds of a large household survey, the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) - that we use in this paper. Section 2 sets out the initial conditions that obtained in the Former Soviet Union and Russia and the picture that emerges from use of official statistics. These are shown to be seriously misleading in a number of key respects. Section 3 deals with the channels of redistribution that are likely to be present in the transition and surveys the evidence available from both aggregate data and firm-level information. In Section 4 the key channels are formalised in a two sector model of transition in which the reallocation of labour and capital across state and private sectors is seen as the determining feature of transition. The model is primarily concerned with labour allocation and hence can provide the paths of inequality and poverty over the transition primarily associated with labour income. Some simulations are presented which provide a set of simple benchmarks for understanding the size of likely effects from both within-sector inequality as also through restructuring and closure probabilities for state firms and the relative productivity of both state and private sectors. Section 5 turns to the empirical findings that emerge from a detailed look at the household surveys, including the factors driving the changes in inequality. Section 6 looks at how stable the transitions over the income distribution have been and, in particular, takes a closer look at groups of stable winners and losers. Section 7 turns to the measurement of poverty and the results that emerge from the household survey regarding both expenditure and income measured poverty. We also look at the characteristics of the poor. Section 8 concludes.

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Ruslan Yemtsov World Bank Poverty Net. 2002. 
This paper analyzes regional data on inequality and poverty in Russia over the period 1994-2000 using published series from the regionally representative Household Budget Survey. The paper finds that the share of inequality in Russia coming from the between-regions component is large (close to a third of the total inequality), growing over time, and accounting for most of the increase in the national inequality over 1994-2000. The paper demonstrates an absence of inter-regional convergence in incomes across Russian regions using various techniques, such as beta, sigma convergence and the transition matrix approach. On the other hand, the paper finds an evidence of convergence in the inequality within regions, which is trended towards an internationally high level. Based on these two findings, the paper projects dynamics of inequality and poverty in Russia over a ten years time horizon. Projections show that if the observed trend is to continue in the future, by 2010 the absolute majority of the Russia’s poor will be concentrated in few permanently impoverished regions, while relatively more affluent regions will become virtually free of poverty. Finally, the paper relates fluctuations in the inequality within regions to a set of factors determining the speed of restructuring at the regional level, classified into four broad categories: endowments and initial conditions, preferences, policies, and shocks; among these factors short run fluctuations of the unemployment rate are revealed as significant and strong correlates of inequality.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Francisco H.G. Ferreira World Bank Poverty Net. 1999. 
Income and wealth distributions can no longer be seen as mere outcomes of the general equilibrium of an economy. The central processes that determine resource allocation – through capital markets, through the political system, and through social circumstances – are influenced by the distribution of wealth in important ways. More unequal societies tend to develop larger groups of people who are excluded from opportunities others enjoy – be they a better education, access to loans, or to insurance – and who therefore do not develop their full productive potentials. Both theory and empirical evidence suggest that these incomplete realizations of economic potential are not of concern only to those who care about equity per se. They also affect aggregate economic potential, and therefore aggregate output and its rate of growth. The inverted-U relationship between growth and inequality suggested by Kuznets has not survived recent empirical scrutiny terribly well. Instead, it is gradually being replaced by a perception that the main flow of causation may be in the other direction, with inequality hampering the rate and quality of economic growth. The debate is not over, either conceptually or empirically. But its very liveliness attests to the importance of the question.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Amartya Sen The New Republic. 2001.  P. 35-40. 
Gender inequality has many distinct and dissimilar faces. In overcoming some of its worst manifestations, especially in mortality rates, the cultivation of women's empowerment and agency, through such means as women's education and gainful employment, has proved very effective. But in dealing with the new form of gender inequality, the injustice relating to natality, there is a need to go beyond the question of the agency of women and to look for a more critical assessment of received values. When anti-female bias in behavior {such as sex-specitic abortion) reflects the hold of traditional masculinist values from which mothers themselves may not be immune, what is needed is not just freedom of action but also freedom of thought — the freedom to question and to scrutinize inherited beliefs and traditional priorities. Informed critical agency is important in combating inequality of every kind, and gender inequality is no exception.

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Simon Kuznets American Economic Review. 1955.  Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-28. 
The process of industrialization engenders increasing income inequality as the labor force shifts from low-income agriculture to the high income sectors. On more advanced levels of development inequality starts decreasing and industrialized countries are again characterized by low inequality due to the smaller weight of agriculture in production (and income generation).
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него