Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 1182
Institutional determinants of savings: Implications for low-income households and public policy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sondra G. Beverly, Michael Sherraden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 457-473.
There is an emerging policy and academic discussion, supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, regarding the potentially positive effects of asset accumulation in low-income households. However, at least two questions precede this discussion: Can the poor save? And, if so, how can programs and policies promote saving by the poor? These questions are addressed by examining the effects of institutional variables on saving behavior. It is posited that four institutional variables-institutionalized saving mechanisms, targeted financial education, attractive saving incentives, and facilitation-promote saving. However, low-income households are substantially less likely to have access to these institutions, a phenomenon that may help explain their below-average saving rates. This discussion has implications, especially as policy-makers consider various proposals to increase the saving rates of low- and middle-income Americans.
The impact of the regulation of low wages on inequality and labour-market adjustment: A comparative analysis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Bazen Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 57-69.
In all continental European countries there exist non-market mechanisms that determine or regulate wage rates for the low-paid. The experience of three countries that have national minimum wages - France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - and three where low wage rates are determined through widespread collective bargaining - Germany, Italy, and Denmark, are considered. It is found that overall there is less inequality (both wage and income) and less poverty than in the UK and the US, where low wages are less regulated. Furthermore, patterns of labor-market adjustment - employment, unemployment, and gross job flows - vary greatly, suggesting that there is no one-to-one mapping between the presence of mechanisms to regulate low wages and labor-market performance. Furthermore, wage shares have been falling since the early 1980s. It is therefore difficult to attribute high and persistent rates of unemployment found in certain countries to the existence of mechanisms to regulate low wages.