Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63728
Establishing the Priority of Labor [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002G.Paul Peterson, James A. Buss International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1699-1710(12) .
Pope John Paul II and the social teachings of the Catholic Church emphasize that labor should not be treated as an instrument in the production process. Rather justice requires that labor be given priority over capital. The reasons for this priority are explained. Several labor market conditions are examined to show that generally the priority of labor over capital does not exist. These conditions include unemployment, unjust wages, poverty, suppression of union activities, lack of participatory management, and discrimination against women and foreign workers. The works of Pope John Paul II are examined to discern the causes of these injustices and possible remedies for them. The roles played by the indirect employer, structures of evil, the ownership of economic resources, as well as the error of economism are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Bertil Holmlund Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 113-141.
A hallmark of modern labor economics is the close interplay between the development of theory, data sources and econometric testing. The evolution of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance provides a good illustration. New theoretical approaches, in particular job-search theory, have inspired a large amount of empirical research, some of it methodologically innovative and most of it highly relevant for economic policy. The paper presents a broad survey and an assessment of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance as it has evolved since the 1970s.
Gross Job Flows in Russian Industry Before and After Reforms: Has Destruction Become More Creative? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002J. David Brown, John S. Earle Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 96-133.
This paper uses 1985-1999 manufacturing census data for old Russian enterprises to calculate the magnitude and productivity effects of gross job flow rates before and after reforms. Job creation was low throughout the period in this sector, but increased slightly during the transition, while job destruction rose markedly. Heterogeneity in firm employment change also increased significantly. Intra- and inter-sectoral job reallocation had no effect on aggregate labor productivity during the socialist period, while they have made a strong positive contribution during the transition. Privatization and product market competition have not led to greater job destruction overall, but rather have helped to focus the destruction in the firms with the lowest productivity.
The Great Human Capital Reallocation: A Study of Occupational Mobility in Transitional Russia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Klara S. Sabirianova Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 191-217.
This paper employs the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a nationwide panel, to inquire into the magnitude, determinants, and consequences of occupational mobility in Russia from 1985 to 1998. We show that the restructuring process increases the rate of occupational reallocation. Structural changes account for a substantial part of the increase in gross occupational flows. A model built in the paper outlines the major explanatory factors of increased mobility during transition. The empirical analysis demonstrates that the destruction of existing jobs and occupations and the creation of new opportunities are important explanations for increased occupational mobility in transitional Russia. The econometric results also indicate that the local outside opportunities and the scale of structural change largely determine the probability of occupational switching.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Jozef Konings, Hartmut Lehmann Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 134-159.
Using a unique enterprise-level data set, which covers the regions Moscow City, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoyarsk and Chuvashia and the three sectors manufacturing and mining, construction and trade and distribution, we estimate Russian labour demand equations for the year 1997. The most important conclusion that can be drawn is that labour demand is inelastic in international perspective if we estimate a labour demand equation for all regions and all sectors combined. So, Russian MLEs well into the transition still exhibit peculiar behaviour as far as wage employment trade-offs are concerned. We try to relate this inelastic labour demand to basic neoclassical theory by testing Marshalls rules of derived demand. Our results show that testing these rules seems a promising avenue for establishing some of the driving forces, which are behind labour demand in Russia.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Barbara Petrongolo Journal of Labor Economics. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 716-41.
The assumption of constant returns in the matching function, embodied in most bilateral search models, is crucial to ensure the uniqueness of the unemployment rate along a steady-state growth path. This article explores the empirical viability of this assumption by estimating individual reemployment probabilities on a sample of unemployment entrants. I apply hazard models to survey data on both completed and uncompleted unemployment durations. The hypothesis of constant returns to matching is not rejected, on the basis of the evidence that the job-finding hazard depends only on local labor market tightness and is independent of its size.
Market Forces and Sex Discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth R. Troske Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 2 . P. 353-380.
The authors report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, they use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Their strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. The authors also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. There was found little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce.
An Analysis of Occupational Change and Departures from the Labor Force: Evidence of the Reasons Teacher Quit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Todd R. Stinebrickner Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 1. P. 192-216.
This article deals with two problems: the timing of exits from the teaching profession and the reasons for these exits. Approximately 67 % of exiting female teachers leave the work force altogether. The presence of a newborn child is the single most important determinant of exits for females. The paper discusses why studies of quit behavior that simply include a person's total number of children may fail to capture the true importance of fertility behavior on a female's quit decision. It is also examined in this paper the return rates of departing teachers and compares the exit behavior of teachers to that of nonteachers.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lisa M. Powell Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 106-128.
This paper examines the impact of childcare prices and wage rates on the joint employment and childcare mode (center, sitter, relative, and husband) choice decisions of married mothers by estimating both a mixed logit and universal logit choice model. Data are drawn from the 1988 Canadian National Child Care Survey and the 1988 Labour Market Activity Survey. The estimation results show that wages have a positive impact on the probability of choosing any of the working states and that childcare prices for center, sitter, and relative care reduce the probability of working and using each respective mode of care. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the wage elasticity for employment is fairly robust across model specifications, while the own-price elasticity of childcare is sensitive to model specification, differing identifying assumptions in the estimation of childcare price equations, and sample selection. The simulation results show that differences exist in the degree to which government subsidies in the form of wage subsidies, targeted childcare subsidies, or unconditional childcare subsidies, impact on labor supply decisions and decisions to substitute across different modes of care by those mothers already in the labor market.
Workers' Heterogeneity and Risk Aversion : a Segmentation Model of the Russian Labour Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Irena Grosfeld, Claudia Senik-Leygonie, Thierry Verdier Journal of Comparative Economics. 2001. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 230-256.
This paper proposes an explanation of the puzzling coexistence of elements of inertia and dynamism on the Russian labour market. In a context of high uncertainty, risk averse and heterogeneous workers face a trade-off between wages and an insurance against risk o ered by the firm. The firm proposes a contract which includes a low monetary wage and the access to social services. Workers choose to accept the contract or to leave the firm. Their choice gives rise to an ex post segmentation : the most productive workers leave the firm and concentrate in the most productive firms; the less adapted workers remain in their initial firm where they accept to receive lower wages as a price for security. In this framework, wage arrears can be viewed as an element of an implicit contract between firms and less productive workers. We test the relevance of the model using a panel dataset containing 9233 Russian firms for 1993 - 1998 as well as a sub-sample for which we have information on firms' wage arrears.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Maria Melkersson
Return to employment, after a period of unemployment, is analyzed for a large sample of Swedish occupationally disabled workers. A piece-wise constant model is used, extended to allow for Gamma heterogeneity. Three competing exits from unemployment are accounted for; regular employment, sheltered/subsidized employment and withdrawal from the labor force. The model is also generalized by accounting for differing search behavior within the population. The hazard rate is constant or slightly increasing over time, for exit to some kind of employment. However, for exit from unemployment by leaving the labor force, the hazard shows quite strong positive duration dependence. Men tend to be more probable to leave unemployment for regular employment, and less probable than women to leave the labor force. The probability of finding regular employment is smallest for workers with psychological disabilities, while high-school or university education as well as previous professional experience increases the hazard rate for regular employment. The heterogeneity due to differing search behavior appears to be at least as important as the Gamma heterogeneity. The estimated probabilities of no search for one particular exit varies, across exits and subsamples, between 0.0 and 0.4.
The Interaction Between Labor Market Policy and Monetary Policy: An Analysis of Time Inconsistency Problems. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Еsa Johansson
This paper studies the interaction between time inconsistency problems in labor market policy and monetary policy. When both policies are discretionary, there is a positive inflation bias, whereas the bias in labor market programs may be either positive or negative. A commitment of labor market programs to zero increases inflation, as compared to the case when both labor market policy and monetary policy are discretionary. Delegation of labor market policy to a liberal labor market board may improve the discretionary outcome, even if labor market programs crowd out regular employment. A conservative central bank always reduces the social loss, even when monetary policy interacts with labor market policy.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lars Calmfors, Anders Forslund, Maria Hemstrom
The Swedish experiences of the 1990s provide a unique example of how large-scale active labour market programmes (ALMPs) have been used as a means to fight high unemployment. This paper discusses the mechanisms through which ALMPs affect (un)employment and surveys the empirical studies of the effects of ALMPs in Sweden. The main conclusions are: (i) there is hardly any evidence for a positive effect on matching efficiency; (ii) there are some indications of positive effects on labour force participation; (iii) subsidised employment seems to cause displacement of regular employment, whereas this appears not to be the case for labour market training; (iv) it is unclear whether or not ALMPs raise aggregate wage pressure in the economy; (v) in the 1990s, training programmes seem not to have enhanced the employment probabilities of participants, whereas some forms of subsidised employment seem to have had such effects; and (vi) youth programmes seem to have caused substantial displacement effects at the same time as the gains for participants appear uncertain. On the whole, ALMPs have probably reduced open unemployment, but also reduced regular employment. The overall policy conclusion is that ALMPs of the scale used in Sweden in the 1990s are not an efficient means of employment policy. To be effective, ALMPs should be used on a smaller scale. There should be a greater emphasis on holding down long-term unemployment in general and a smaller emphasis on youth programmes. ALMPs should not be used as a means to renew unemployment benefit eligibility.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Greg Murtough, Matthew Waite
This paper investigates the extent to which employees with a casual employment contract can be viewed as a group with broadly similar personal characteristics and work arrangements. If most casual contract employees are similar, then it is probably valid to make general conclusions about their circumstances. Conversely, the presence of considerable diversity would suggest that generalisations about casual contract employment are inappropriate. This issue is of interest because generalisations are often made about how the welfare of workers has been affected by the rapid increase in casual employees as measured in regular surveys by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Robert Drago, Gerald T. Garvey
Recent advances in incentive theory stress the multi- dimensional nature of agent effort and particularly the case where workers can improve the performance of others through `helping' efforts. This paper provides a simple model of an agent's incentive to help depending on the compensation package, the cost of monitoring, and the allocation of tasks. We then analyze the determinants of reported helping efforts within workgroups for a sample of Australian workers. As expected, workers are less likely to help one another when promotion incentives are strong. Subsidiary results are consistent with our `contest' interpretation of this finding and not consistent with `gift exchange' or other variants of the efficiency wage hypothesis. Also as predicted, a wide range of job tasks amplifies the negative effect of promotional incentives, while monitoring of help mitigates the negative effect. We find an unexpected positive effect of piece rates on helping effort for long-term employees which we show is consistent with repeated game effects between workers. These considerations do not overturn our findings about the effects of tournaments.
Uncertainty and the Labor Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Joseph Wesson
This paper describes the labor market in general, and the job search process in particular, as stochastic decay processes. this has implications in terms of information, discrimination and the Natural Rate Hypothesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Mandy Doyle Personnel Review. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 465 - 481.
An increasing number of organisations are experiencing high velocity discontinuous change. To facilitate their adaptation and transformation, many are introducing more empowering structures and cultures. This has led them to disperse change agency to a more diverse "cast of characters" with implications for the way change agents are managed in the future. Draws on the findings of an ongoing empirical study into the experiences of those managers and employees with responsibility for implementing and managing change. Examines the way in which they are trained and developed to make the transition from change "novice" to change "expert". Identifies some of the psycho-social stresses and traumas associated with managing change. Explores the level of organisational support afforded to those who find that change responsibilities are now a significant part of their professional or operational role. Concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications facing those who have responsibility for "managing the change managers", with a particular focus on HR strategies and policies.
HRM in the knowledge-based economy: is there an afterlife? Возможно ли управление человеческими ресурсами в экономике, основанной на знании [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Mario Raich Journal of European Industrial Training. 2002. Vol. 26. No. 6. P. 269 - 273.
There is a clear shift in human resource management from a "service provider" to a "business partner"; however, the new requirements and needs can also be met by the line management or external parties. For this reason, the new development is at the same time an immense opportunity and a threat for the HR managers. We are convinced that the HR function in the future will be very different from that in the past. The companies that do not see this and do not act accordingly will have a serious problem with the core assets of the "new economy": the knowledge workers and the knowledge professionals.
Introduction: human resource management in Africa/ Введение: Управление человеческими ресурсами в Африке [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Ken Kamoche International Journal of Human resources management. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 7. P. 993 - 997.
This article introduces the special issue that seeks to spur the debate on the challenges of managing people in organizations in Africa. The debate on HRM in Africa has proceeded with tentative steps and now clearly needs to be located firmly within the international management context. It is not the purpose of this special issue to discover or develop an over-arching model of HRM. That has been attempted elsewhere. Our purpose is to bring together the various threads that characterize the on-going debate and hopefully move towards a more specific research agenda which captures the complexity of managing on the African continent. Some of these threads include the formulation of new perspectives on HR research, finding common ground with diverse disciplines and tackling enduring problems like ethnicity and discrimination.
The HR function in local and overseas firms: Evidence from the PricewaterhouseCoopers-Cranfield HR Project (1999)/Функции управления человеческими ресурсами в локальных и международных фирмах: данные из отчета фирмы ПрайсуотерхаусКуперс (1991) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002P. McGraw Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 40. No. 2. P. 205 - 227.
Multinational companies (MNCs) employ a significant proportion of the Australian workforce and are influential in shaping local human resource management (HRM) practices. Notwithstanding this influence, there have been few studies of Australian HRM comparing local companies with MNCs. This study systematically compares the nature of the HRM function in local and overseas firms using data from the 1999 PricewaterhouseCoopers-Cranfield Project on HR in Australia. The study makes these comparisons against the backdrop of theoretical arguments for overseas companies to either adapt to the local HR environment or adopt HR practices from other parts of their overseas networks.The main conclusions are that while overseas companies as a group differ from locals in some important ways, particularly in having higher levels of representation on company boards and being more influential in overall decision on HR matters, in terms of formal HR policies the two groups are substantially similar. The main differences between the three main overseas groups are that UK companies report a lower level of influence and representation than their US or European counterparts.