Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63842
Market Forces and Sex Discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth R. Troske Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 2 . P. 353-380.
The authors report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, they use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Their strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. The authors also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. There was found little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce.
An Analysis of Occupational Change and Departures from the Labor Force: Evidence of the Reasons Teacher Quit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Todd R. Stinebrickner Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 1. P. 192-216.
This article deals with two problems: the timing of exits from the teaching profession and the reasons for these exits. Approximately 67 % of exiting female teachers leave the work force altogether. The presence of a newborn child is the single most important determinant of exits for females. The paper discusses why studies of quit behavior that simply include a person's total number of children may fail to capture the true importance of fertility behavior on a female's quit decision. It is also examined in this paper the return rates of departing teachers and compares the exit behavior of teachers to that of nonteachers.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lisa M. Powell Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 106-128.
This paper examines the impact of childcare prices and wage rates on the joint employment and childcare mode (center, sitter, relative, and husband) choice decisions of married mothers by estimating both a mixed logit and universal logit choice model. Data are drawn from the 1988 Canadian National Child Care Survey and the 1988 Labour Market Activity Survey. The estimation results show that wages have a positive impact on the probability of choosing any of the working states and that childcare prices for center, sitter, and relative care reduce the probability of working and using each respective mode of care. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the wage elasticity for employment is fairly robust across model specifications, while the own-price elasticity of childcare is sensitive to model specification, differing identifying assumptions in the estimation of childcare price equations, and sample selection. The simulation results show that differences exist in the degree to which government subsidies in the form of wage subsidies, targeted childcare subsidies, or unconditional childcare subsidies, impact on labor supply decisions and decisions to substitute across different modes of care by those mothers already in the labor market.
Workers' Heterogeneity and Risk Aversion : a Segmentation Model of the Russian Labour Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Irena Grosfeld, Claudia Senik-Leygonie, Thierry Verdier Journal of Comparative Economics. 2001. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 230-256.
This paper proposes an explanation of the puzzling coexistence of elements of inertia and dynamism on the Russian labour market. In a context of high uncertainty, risk averse and heterogeneous workers face a trade-off between wages and an insurance against risk o ered by the firm. The firm proposes a contract which includes a low monetary wage and the access to social services. Workers choose to accept the contract or to leave the firm. Their choice gives rise to an ex post segmentation : the most productive workers leave the firm and concentrate in the most productive firms; the less adapted workers remain in their initial firm where they accept to receive lower wages as a price for security. In this framework, wage arrears can be viewed as an element of an implicit contract between firms and less productive workers. We test the relevance of the model using a panel dataset containing 9233 Russian firms for 1993 - 1998 as well as a sub-sample for which we have information on firms' wage arrears.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Maria Melkersson
Return to employment, after a period of unemployment, is analyzed for a large sample of Swedish occupationally disabled workers. A piece-wise constant model is used, extended to allow for Gamma heterogeneity. Three competing exits from unemployment are accounted for; regular employment, sheltered/subsidized employment and withdrawal from the labor force. The model is also generalized by accounting for differing search behavior within the population. The hazard rate is constant or slightly increasing over time, for exit to some kind of employment. However, for exit from unemployment by leaving the labor force, the hazard shows quite strong positive duration dependence. Men tend to be more probable to leave unemployment for regular employment, and less probable than women to leave the labor force. The probability of finding regular employment is smallest for workers with psychological disabilities, while high-school or university education as well as previous professional experience increases the hazard rate for regular employment. The heterogeneity due to differing search behavior appears to be at least as important as the Gamma heterogeneity. The estimated probabilities of no search for one particular exit varies, across exits and subsamples, between 0.0 and 0.4.
The Interaction Between Labor Market Policy and Monetary Policy: An Analysis of Time Inconsistency Problems. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Еsa Johansson
This paper studies the interaction between time inconsistency problems in labor market policy and monetary policy. When both policies are discretionary, there is a positive inflation bias, whereas the bias in labor market programs may be either positive or negative. A commitment of labor market programs to zero increases inflation, as compared to the case when both labor market policy and monetary policy are discretionary. Delegation of labor market policy to a liberal labor market board may improve the discretionary outcome, even if labor market programs crowd out regular employment. A conservative central bank always reduces the social loss, even when monetary policy interacts with labor market policy.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lars Calmfors, Anders Forslund, Maria Hemstrom
The Swedish experiences of the 1990s provide a unique example of how large-scale active labour market programmes (ALMPs) have been used as a means to fight high unemployment. This paper discusses the mechanisms through which ALMPs affect (un)employment and surveys the empirical studies of the effects of ALMPs in Sweden. The main conclusions are: (i) there is hardly any evidence for a positive effect on matching efficiency; (ii) there are some indications of positive effects on labour force participation; (iii) subsidised employment seems to cause displacement of regular employment, whereas this appears not to be the case for labour market training; (iv) it is unclear whether or not ALMPs raise aggregate wage pressure in the economy; (v) in the 1990s, training programmes seem not to have enhanced the employment probabilities of participants, whereas some forms of subsidised employment seem to have had such effects; and (vi) youth programmes seem to have caused substantial displacement effects at the same time as the gains for participants appear uncertain. On the whole, ALMPs have probably reduced open unemployment, but also reduced regular employment. The overall policy conclusion is that ALMPs of the scale used in Sweden in the 1990s are not an efficient means of employment policy. To be effective, ALMPs should be used on a smaller scale. There should be a greater emphasis on holding down long-term unemployment in general and a smaller emphasis on youth programmes. ALMPs should not be used as a means to renew unemployment benefit eligibility.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Greg Murtough, Matthew Waite
This paper investigates the extent to which employees with a casual employment contract can be viewed as a group with broadly similar personal characteristics and work arrangements. If most casual contract employees are similar, then it is probably valid to make general conclusions about their circumstances. Conversely, the presence of considerable diversity would suggest that generalisations about casual contract employment are inappropriate. This issue is of interest because generalisations are often made about how the welfare of workers has been affected by the rapid increase in casual employees as measured in regular surveys by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Robert Drago, Gerald T. Garvey
Recent advances in incentive theory stress the multi- dimensional nature of agent effort and particularly the case where workers can improve the performance of others through `helping' efforts. This paper provides a simple model of an agent's incentive to help depending on the compensation package, the cost of monitoring, and the allocation of tasks. We then analyze the determinants of reported helping efforts within workgroups for a sample of Australian workers. As expected, workers are less likely to help one another when promotion incentives are strong. Subsidiary results are consistent with our `contest' interpretation of this finding and not consistent with `gift exchange' or other variants of the efficiency wage hypothesis. Also as predicted, a wide range of job tasks amplifies the negative effect of promotional incentives, while monitoring of help mitigates the negative effect. We find an unexpected positive effect of piece rates on helping effort for long-term employees which we show is consistent with repeated game effects between workers. These considerations do not overturn our findings about the effects of tournaments.
Uncertainty and the Labor Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Joseph Wesson
This paper describes the labor market in general, and the job search process in particular, as stochastic decay processes. this has implications in terms of information, discrimination and the Natural Rate Hypothesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Mandy Doyle Personnel Review. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 465 - 481.
An increasing number of organisations are experiencing high velocity discontinuous change. To facilitate their adaptation and transformation, many are introducing more empowering structures and cultures. This has led them to disperse change agency to a more diverse "cast of characters" with implications for the way change agents are managed in the future. Draws on the findings of an ongoing empirical study into the experiences of those managers and employees with responsibility for implementing and managing change. Examines the way in which they are trained and developed to make the transition from change "novice" to change "expert". Identifies some of the psycho-social stresses and traumas associated with managing change. Explores the level of organisational support afforded to those who find that change responsibilities are now a significant part of their professional or operational role. Concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications facing those who have responsibility for "managing the change managers", with a particular focus on HR strategies and policies.
HRM in the knowledge-based economy: is there an afterlife? Возможно ли управление человеческими ресурсами в экономике, основанной на знании [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Mario Raich Journal of European Industrial Training. 2002. Vol. 26. No. 6. P. 269 - 273.
There is a clear shift in human resource management from a "service provider" to a "business partner"; however, the new requirements and needs can also be met by the line management or external parties. For this reason, the new development is at the same time an immense opportunity and a threat for the HR managers. We are convinced that the HR function in the future will be very different from that in the past. The companies that do not see this and do not act accordingly will have a serious problem with the core assets of the "new economy": the knowledge workers and the knowledge professionals.
Introduction: human resource management in Africa/ Введение: Управление человеческими ресурсами в Африке [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Ken Kamoche International Journal of Human resources management. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 7. P. 993 - 997.
This article introduces the special issue that seeks to spur the debate on the challenges of managing people in organizations in Africa. The debate on HRM in Africa has proceeded with tentative steps and now clearly needs to be located firmly within the international management context. It is not the purpose of this special issue to discover or develop an over-arching model of HRM. That has been attempted elsewhere. Our purpose is to bring together the various threads that characterize the on-going debate and hopefully move towards a more specific research agenda which captures the complexity of managing on the African continent. Some of these threads include the formulation of new perspectives on HR research, finding common ground with diverse disciplines and tackling enduring problems like ethnicity and discrimination.
The HR function in local and overseas firms: Evidence from the PricewaterhouseCoopers-Cranfield HR Project (1999)/Функции управления человеческими ресурсами в локальных и международных фирмах: данные из отчета фирмы ПрайсуотерхаусКуперс (1991) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002P. McGraw Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 40. No. 2. P. 205 - 227.
Multinational companies (MNCs) employ a significant proportion of the Australian workforce and are influential in shaping local human resource management (HRM) practices. Notwithstanding this influence, there have been few studies of Australian HRM comparing local companies with MNCs. This study systematically compares the nature of the HRM function in local and overseas firms using data from the 1999 PricewaterhouseCoopers-Cranfield Project on HR in Australia. The study makes these comparisons against the backdrop of theoretical arguments for overseas companies to either adapt to the local HR environment or adopt HR practices from other parts of their overseas networks.The main conclusions are that while overseas companies as a group differ from locals in some important ways, particularly in having higher levels of representation on company boards and being more influential in overall decision on HR matters, in terms of formal HR policies the two groups are substantially similar. The main differences between the three main overseas groups are that UK companies report a lower level of influence and representation than their US or European counterparts.
Human Resource Management, Corporate Performance and Employee Wellbeing: Building the Worker into HRM. Управление человеческими ресурсами, корпоративная производительность и благополучие сотрудников [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002David E. Guest Journal of Industrial Relations. 2002. Vol. 44. No. 3. P. 335 - 358.
Two main approaches to human resource management (HRM)are identified: one focusing on the organisational concern for the relationship between HRM and performance, the other mounting a critique of HRM. It is argued that both pay lip service to, but largely neglect worker reactions to HRM. The case is made for building the worker into the analysis of HRM, on the one hand,by incorporating worker attitudes and behaviour in the study of the HRMperformance relationship,and on the other, by paying serious attention to the association between HRM and workerrelated outcomes. Evidence is presented to suggest that worker attitudes and behaviour mediate the HRMperformance relationship and that certain HR practices are associated with higher work and life satisfaction. These practices include job design, direct participation and information provision that are associated with higher performance; but work satisfaction is also associated with equal opportunities, familyfriendly and antiharassment practices. It is suggested that a more workerfriendly HRM can best be applied in the context of a partnership or mutual gains framework.
Exploring human resource management practices in small and medium sized enterprises. Практика управления человеческими ресурсами в малых и средних предприятиях. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Catherine M. Cassell, Sara J. Nadin Personnel Review. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 6 -6. P. 671 - 692.
This paper reports on empirical work recently conducted about the use and effectiveness of HRM practices in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). A telephone survey was conducted with 100 senior managers of SMEs to ascertain their use of a range of human resource practices and the extent to which they had found those practices successful in aiding the achievement of company objectives. Additionally in-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers from a further 22 SMEs. Findings suggest that there is considerable diversity amongst SMEs in relation to their use of HR practices. A model is provided that identifies the key criteria that underlie the adoption of HRM practices, and the implications of the model are discussed.
A change of name or a change of identity?: Do job titles influence people management professionals' perceptions of their role in managing change? Смена имени или изменение идентичности? Влияют ли титулы на восприятие менежерами по персоналу их роли в смене стиля управления? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002R. Caldwell Personnel Review. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 6 -6. P. 693 - 709.
The role and significance of people management professionals in managing change has become increasingly important with the growing ascendancy of "HRM" in its various manifestations. Yet there is persistent concern that "traditional personnel managers" may be less willing or able to act in this arena when compared with apparently new style HR specialists. Is it possible that individuals with an HR job title will perceive their role as more proactive or effective in managing change? The survey findings presented here of 98 people management professionals in a sample of 350 major UK companies, explore four key areas of HRM often closely associated with change management interventions. While the findings indicate important areas of agreement between "personnel" and "HR" sub-groups, defined by job title, they also demonstrate significant differences in role perceptions and evaluations of practice in the change management arena. It is concluded that people management professionals with an HR job title appear to identify more strongly with the change-oriented agenda of HRM. However, there were no significant differences between personnel and HR sub-groups in their perceived effectiveness at managing change. The implications of these findings for the future of the personnel job title are then discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Jan A.P. Hoogervorst, Siem Jan Koopman International Journal of Human resources management. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 8. P. 1245 - 1265.
The influence of technology developments on the content and arrangement of work is a recurring theme in many publications. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) are reshaping internal organizational design and necessitate new types of employee capabilities and behaviour. As will be illustrated, ICT developments create a heightened level of business and market dynamics. Arguably, these dynamics affect the required capabilities and behaviour of employees even more strongly. Similarly, the way businesses are operating, and customer, supplier and business partner relationships are formed, is also affected by the rapid ICT progress. Key drivers shaping the new business context will be addressed. This paper argues that the trends and developments illustrated necessitate revision of traditionally held beliefs and paradigms. Said revision has important implications for the strategy and management of human resources, whereby the focus on employee behaviour is crucial. Two key aspects of a human resource strategy will be discussed, identified as HR alignment and HR enablement. With the focus on employee behaviour, attention should be given to the organizational context, since this context determines employee behaviour. Said context is defined by organizational culture, management practices and various organizational structures and systems. In view of the necessary organizational change associated with the developments illustrated, the importance of consistency and coherence between the elements of the organizational context is stressed. Establishing change under conditions of consistency and coherence is therefore identified as a crucial organizational competence.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Andrew B. Abel, Janice C. Eberly American Economic Review. 1994. Vol. 84 . No. 1. P. 1369-1384.
This paper extends the theory of investment under uncertainty to incorporate fixed costs of investment, a wedge between the purchase price and sale price of capital, and potential irreversibility of investment. In this extended framework, investment is a non-decreasing function of q, the shadow price of installed capital. There are potentially three investment regimes, which depend on the value of q relative to two critical values. For values of q above the upper critical value, investment is positive and is an increasing function of q, as is standard in the theory branch of the adjustment cost literature. For intermediate values of q, between two critical values, investment is zero. Although this regime features prominently in the irreversibility literature, it is largely ignored in the adjustment cost literature. Finally, if q is below the lower critical value, gross investment is negative, a possibility that is ruled out by assumption in the irreversibility of literature. In general, however, the shadow price q is not directly observable, so we present two examples relating q to observable varieties.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-12-2002Terry J. Fitzgerald Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. 1999.
In their efforts to maintain low inflation, policymakers pay little attention to the growth rate of the money supply. Yet many studies have found that money growth and inflation a closely related, at least in the long run. But how long must money growth remain strong before it begins to concern policymakers? That is, what is the shortest period over which money growth seems to be reliably associated with inflation?