Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63905
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Erich Kirchler Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 131-138.
Taxes limit an individual's freedom to make autonomous decisions about his income. A person is likely to respond to restrictions on his own freedom or perceived restrictions by reactance if opposition is a promising means for reestablishing the initial situation. Reactance as a consequence of perceived limitation of freedom is likely to manifest itself through change of attitudes, tax morale, and tax behavior. It is hypothesized that employers who have been running their business only a short time perceive taxes as a drastic cut in their profit and possibilities for investments and tend to feel limited their freedom and consequently display reactance more than employers who have had more extensive experience with their firms and the tax system. A sample of 117 employers with one or more dependent workers completed a questionnaire on: 1. perceived limitation of one's freedom through tax obligations, 2. attitudes towards tax evasion, 3. moral standards with regard to paying taxes, 4. actions to reduce or avoid taxes, and 5. demographic characteristics.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter C. Kostant Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 203-246.
Striking changes in the norms and practices of corporate governance have occurred since the 1980s. Corporate directors have become more independent and diligent and institutional investors have become more activist. If one applies Albert Hirschman's insights about the interactions of exit, voice and loyalty, it is found that over-reliance on exit as the remedy of choice of shareholders and educate managers effectively. After the wave of hostile takeovers, the extent of management failure became apparent and the increased power of voice was an important factor in accelerating changes in conduct and norms. The new Team Production Model is useful in describing how public corporations are increasingly being governed. The model helps to explain why corporate boards should function as independent arbitrators among the corporate constituents that have invested in the entity. Mechanisms to increase stakeholder voice and loyalty can help the board function effectively and may increase both efficiency and fairness. The role of corporate msel, as co-agent with corporate management, and having an independent fiduciary duty to the entity and not its management, is essential to assist the corporate board in meeting its obligations within the Team Production Model. Lawyers, as honest brokers with duties to the enterprise, can an important role in increasing stakeholder voice and loyalty.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gary D. Lynne Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 267-288.
Microeconomics envisions a single decision-maker in a firm or household who is presumed to experience economic relationships only in markets. This theory is largely silent regarding the moral dimension, i.e., the nature of the invisible hand, and how it unconsciously affects the self acting in said markets. Amitai Etzioni, the founder of socioeconomics, offered the vision of the moral dimension as a component of the self. Metaeconomics operationalizes this vision by making explicit the Strict Father moral dimension in the invisible hand and recognizing interdependence of self when Nurturant Parent morality is operant. It builds upon a tripartite, multiple-self concept, with a mediating adult who balances the pleasures with the moral dimension in finding a satisfactory mix of self - and we-interests. By making this dimension explicit, metaeconomics reintegrates ethics and economics, includes values and community, and proposes the starting point for a common analytical engine for all socioeconomists.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski, Barry B. Levine Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 309-334.
The task is to explore social underpinnings in economic exchanges. This oration is undertaken within the frame of reference of socio-economics that centers on the multifarious social and cultural variables of economic phenomena. In particular, the socio-economic perspective on the market, focusing on the social setting of market exchanges, is utilized. As such, this exploration probes under the surface of (seemingly) cost-benefit induced exchange processes and uncovers a far more complex social structure and dynamics underlying these processes. Hence, these processes are analyzed as constituting socio-economic categories of the market. The social-cultural contingency of economic exchange, especially of its market varieties, is the key hypothesis. This signifies that market exchange, just as production, distribution, and consumption, is a dependent variable on concrete social-historical conditions, rather than being a human universal. The approach proposed here provides an alternative to the purely economic conception, which treats exchange processes as strictly economic variables driven by an intrinsic logic and insulated from other social relations. The mainstream economic literature's lack of consistent applications of such an approach to market exchange contrasts with the richness of such applications in the field of socio-economics. An attempt is made to contribute toward further elaboration and application of socio-economics.
The volunteer's folly and socio-economic man: Some thoughts on altruism, rationality, and community [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Trevor M. Knox Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 475-492.
Altruistic volunteers are either not truly altruistic or not rational, according to traditional economic analysis. They are not altruistic if they volunteer to receive a utility benefit, and they are not rational if they choose to volunteer when monetary contribution would be more efficient. Economic man is a fool to volunteer. However, socio-economic man is shrewder. Socio-economic man is moderately deontological, path-dependent, nonmonetary, nonrationally motivated, and community-minded. Corresponding elements of socio-economic rationality that allow for rational, altruistic volunteers are considerd. The five elements considered are: 1, nonconsequentialist reasons, 2. constitutive choices, 3. pricelessness, 4. nonrational motivation, and 5. community preference production.
Institutional determinants of savings: Implications for low-income households and public policy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sondra G. Beverly, Michael Sherraden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 457-473.
There is an emerging policy and academic discussion, supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, regarding the potentially positive effects of asset accumulation in low-income households. However, at least two questions precede this discussion: Can the poor save? And, if so, how can programs and policies promote saving by the poor? These questions are addressed by examining the effects of institutional variables on saving behavior. It is posited that four institutional variables-institutionalized saving mechanisms, targeted financial education, attractive saving incentives, and facilitation-promote saving. However, low-income households are substantially less likely to have access to these institutions, a phenomenon that may help explain their below-average saving rates. This discussion has implications, especially as policy-makers consider various proposals to increase the saving rates of low- and middle-income Americans.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bernd Schilcher Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 429-438.
There has always been a rather strong contrast between liberal and communitarian views. The liberal doctrine of irreversible plurality of philosophical and moral ideas for instance does not only mean that consensus about social values is difficult. A public consensus about the necessary conception of the good cannot be obtained, says Rawls. On the other hand, communitarians such as MacIntyre, Sandel, and Walzer, are deeply convinced by the idea of an immanent telos of societies, which in their opinion have the utmost influence on the development of individuals. A similar strong contrast exists between the liberal universalism of values and the communitarian particularism. Etzioni's New Theory now tries to overcome these unsatisfactory tyrannies of dualism.
The common will [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mihnea Moldoveanu Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 541-554.
This paper discusses the formation of a common will among a group of people from two separate points of view: that of social choice theory and that of discourse ethics. The paper evaluates the formation of a common will be silent mechanisms for aggregating individual wishes and preferences, traditionally the domain of social choice theory, from a procedural perspective. It is concluded that, although neither approach to the formation of a common will fares well by the standards normally used to justify the other, proponents of either approach have much to learn from a dialogue with proponents of the other.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ross Zucker Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 555-576.
Viewing labor and capital as utterly distinct and competitive categories of economic actors, modern or neoclassical economics denies the existence of community in the economy. This study scrutinizes the elementary relations of economic life, finding a dimension of community, rather than a total absence or thorough going manifestation of it. Whereas neoclassical theorists ascribe alternative and independent ends to labor and capital, their goals also exhibit some profound commonalities. Contemporary communitarians also discern some community in the economy yet tend to identify it in subsystems, such as the firm. Analysis suggests a broader dimension of community on a system-wide scale.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Flora Gill Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 725-743.
Economics views work as merely providing purchasing power. Many economists agree that there is a great deal more to work, but they nonetheless feel comfortable with this narrow description, believing that important aspects of work that they have left out of consideration have no impact on the validity of their analytical conclusions and policy propositions. This paper argues that if economics is to shed light on urgent socio-economic issues and suggest appropriate remedies, labor economics must be expanded to encompass work as a creative endeavor - an escape from social isolation - and to acknowledge the analytical implications of the workplace as a social microcosm, which is, inter alia, governed by power relationships. This paper presents lessons from an investigation of the meaning of work in a number of cognate disciplines and outlines their implication for labor economics and for policy seeking to advance the cause of social justice.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Herbert Kiesling Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 653-663.
Economics can be considered the science that deals with marketplace efficiency, or it can be viewed as a social science, which deals with human policy goals considered generally. The view Amartya Sen (1987) takes of the matter is that the broader view is the more correct. There is one large and important group of human goals that the mainstream professional economists systematically omit from their discipline: collective goals, especially other-regarding collective goals. How investigators can isolate lists of social goals that persons consider important is discussed. Using these it should not be difficult for social scientists to proceed to provide analysis, drawing upon all the relevant theoretical and imperical knowledge, and so making predictions for opportunity costs in terms of all the other goals of moving a unit closer to any goal (particularly a goal of central concern).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sourushe Zandvakili Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 73-89.
The labor market in the United States has gone through a number of noticeable changes, one of which is a rise participation of women in the labor force. A number of studies have investigated the consequences of these changes on wage, income, or earnings inequality in a static framework. This study investigated the consequences of these changes on earnings inequality over time. The earnings inequality among male- and female-headed households is compared. The factors are considered that might have influenced the earnings inequality among female-headed households. Short-term and long-term inequality was measured from 1978-1986. It was found that short-term inequalities generally have a rising trend and contain transitory components; long-term inequalities declined in the early years because of a smoothing of transitory components; and within-group inequalities are the principle determinant of overall inequality. Education, race, age, and marital status were considered as possible contributors to the overall inequality. Education and race were shown to be the most influential factor explaining inequality among female-headed households and explained a third of the observed inequality. Earnings stability profiles reveal the existence of permanent and chronic inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jouce P. Jacobsen, Laurence M. Levin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 291-304.
This article examines recent internal migration patterns for the United States workforce and contrasts household earnings outcomes for movers and nonmovers by sex and marital status. Three aspects of how migration affects the relative economic status of women and men are considered: 1) the importance of relative economic opportunities for husband and wife for the decision as to whether or not to move; 2) actual economic outcomes for movers relative to nonmovers; and 3) the effect of moving on relative earnings within married-couple households. It is found that the decision to move is consistent with a common preference model of household decision-making and that the recently available range of opportunities to migrate has had little effect on the earnings composition of married-couple and single male households, but has benefited single women.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bijou Yang, David Lester Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 281-290.
The role of culture in economic affairs was first recognized by Max Weber who attributed the rise of modern capitalism to the Protestant ethic. More recently, the contribution of cultural factors to economic success or failure in different countries or regions of the world has been documented. The present paper joins this effort by demonstrating the impact of culture on unemployment empirically. The national character traits of neuroticism and extraversion were added to a regression analysis of unemployment developed by Nickell (1998).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrick Raines, Charles G. Leathers Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 375-388.
The behavioral influences of large bureaucratic organizations that were noted by Schumpeter would seem to weigh heavily against the plausibility of the Schumpeterian hypothesis that large corporations are more powerful engines of technological innovations than small competitive firms. But those influences also offer clues about how cultural differences between the US and Japan resulted in large Japanese corporations in the later post-WWII era conforming closely to the Schumpeterian hypothesis.
Social networks and self-employment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Allen Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 5. P. 487-501.
This article applies social network concepts, developed in sociology, to the analysis of the self-employment decision. Theory suggests that if one's social network provides social support so as to reduce the costs of self-employment, those with more effective social networks may possess a greater incentive to attempt self-employment, ceteris paribus. Empirical investigation of this hypothesis is conducted using a unique new data set, the Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Climate Study, which allows analysis of self-employment, in a social context. Results illustrate that the individual self-employment choice is highly influenced by the size and composition of the social network and that women receive less influential social support for entrepreneurial activity than men receive, a finding that may provide an explanation for gender differences in self-employment likelihood.
Well-being at work: A cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alfonso Sousa-Poza, Andres A. Sousa-Poza Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 6. P. 517-538.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the levels and determinants of job satisfaction in a cross-national setting. This aim is accomplished using the latest Work Orientations data set from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The survey was conducted in 1997 and, in this paper, data for 21 countries are used. The main results are: (1) workers in all countries are quite satisfied, (2) Denmark is the country with the highest job-satisfaction level, (3) a comparison with the 1989 ISSP data set reveals that job satisfaction has declined in Germany and the US in the 1990s, (4) using a bottom-up psychological model, in which work-role inputs are compared with work-role outputs, cross-national differences are explained, (5) having an interesting job and having good relations with management are the two most important work-role outputs, and having an exhausting job is the most important work-role input, (6) workers in Eastern European countries tend to value high income.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen L. Morgan Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 6. P. 591-595.
The concept of social capital, according to James Coleman (1990), blurs distinctions between types of social structures. Most researchers who embrace Coleman's concept choose to preserve its broad content rather than sharpen its analytic bite. In order to further develop social capital as a theory capable of explanation, the analytic contribution of the concept of capital must be clarified. In this paper, some structure is imposed on the broad concept of social capital by driving a conceptual wedge between norms and networks and then elevating information to the same (secondary) status as norms. The attempt is made to build a theory by invoking a distinction between social capital resources and capital goods.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Harold Wolozin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 45-57.
"...Economics is supposed to be concerned with real people. It is hard to believe that real people could be completely unaffected by the reach of the self-examination induced by the Socratic question, `How should one live?'a question that is, also a central motivating one for ethics. Can people whom economics studies really be so unaffected by this resilient question and stick exclusively to the rudimentary hard-headedness attributed to them by modern economics?" Amartya Sen, On Ethics & Economics."...Apart from a few exceptions, the international consensus view within sociology, anthropology, political science and psychology seems to be that agents are not irrational in the way that neoclassical economists presume. The orthodox economic canons of rationality are thus widely rejected elsewhere," Geoffrey M. Hodgson, Economics and Institutions."Once we realize that the human mind is everywhere active and imaginative, then we need to understand the routes of this activity if we are to grasp how the human mind works. This is true whether the mind is trying to come to grips with painful reality, reacting to trauma, coping with the everyday or just making things up. Freud called this imaginative activity phantasy, and he argued both that it functions unconsciously and that it plays a powerful role in the organization of a person's experience. This surely, contains the seeds of a profound insight into the human condition; it is the central insight of psychoanalysis...a pervasive aspect of mental life.... Are we to see humans as having depthas complex psychological organisms who generate layers of meaning which lie beneath the surface of their own understanding? Or are we to take ourselves as transparent to ourselves?" Jonathan Lear, Open Minded: Working Out the Logic of the Soul.
Rational actors or rational fools: implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Slovic, Melissa Finucane, Ellen Peters Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 329-342.
This paper describes two fundamental modes of thinking. The experiential mode, is intuitive, automatic, natural, and based upon images to which positive and negative affective feelings have been attached through learning and experience. The other mode is analytic, deliberative, and reason based. I describe recent empirical research illuminating "the affect heuristic" wherein people rapidly consult their affective feelings, when making judgments and decisions. This heuristic enables us to be rational actors in many situations. It works beautifully when experience enables us to anticipate accurately how we will like or dislike the consequences of our decisions. However, it fails miserably when the consequences turn out to be much different than we anticipated. In the latter circumstances, the rational actor may well become the rational fool.