Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63905
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Hugh Louch Social Networks. 2000. Vol. 22. No. 1. P. 45-64.
This article combines studies of transitivity and homophily in an empirical analysis of personal network integration. Using a national sample of individual's personal networks, the paper reveals that transitivity explains a majority of cases of network integration with two important caveats: (1) recent work on networks and social structure points to important structural constraints on personal networks that shape their formation, and (2) homophily (e.g. sex or race) and choice homophily (e.g. religion) improve the likelihood of integration in personal networks. The results indicate that the second finding interacts with relationship length and the availability of focal points to organize individual contact.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David C. Ribar, Mark O. Wilhelm Journal of Political Economy. 2002. Vol. 110. No. 2. P. 425-457.
This study theoretically and empirically examines altruistic and joy-of-giving motivations underlying contributions to charitable activities. The theoretical analysis shows that in an economy with an infinitely large number of donors, impurely altruistic preferences lead to either asymptotically zero or complete crowd-out. The paper then establishes conditions on preferences that are sufficient to yield zero crowd-out in the limit. These conditions are fairly weak and quite plausible. An empirical representation of the model is estimated using a new 198692 panel of donations and government funding from the United States to 125 international relief and development organizations. Besides directly linking sources of public and private support, the econometric analysis controls for unobserved institution-specific factors, institution-specific changes in leadership, year-to-year changes in need, and expenditures by related organizations. The estimates show little evidence of crowd-out from either direct public or related private sources. Thus, at the margin, donations to these organizations appear to be motivated solely by joy-of-giving preferences. In addition to addressing the basic question of motives behind charitable giving, the results help explain the existing disparity between econometric and experimental crowd-out estimates.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Damian Grimshaw, Kevin G. Ward, Jill Rubery Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 25-54.
This paper explores changes in employment policies and practices that are typically associated with the classical model of the internal labour market. Drawing on documentary information and interviews with managers in four large organisations in the UK, the evidence suggests that many of the traditional pillars of the internal labour market have been dismantled. New policies around training, recruitment, pay, job security and career progression have been introduced in response to pressures and opportunities for change, both internal and external to the organisation. Changes in the external labour market involve a shift in the balance of power between labour and capital, coupled with a weakening of the mechanisms which coordinate and regulate labour market exchange. Within the organisation, there are a range of pressures to transform production, or service delivery, including the restructuring of traditional forms of work organisation, the extension of working-time and changes in organisational structure. This paper analyses evidence of new employer-led market solutions to this range of conflicting pressures. The aim is to highlight the tendency for contradictory outcomes as new policies capitalise on changing external conditions, but at the expense of meeting organisational demands. Also, new policies implemented by individual employers may be unsustainable where, on aggregate, they fail to develop workforce skills or to fulfil career expectations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Dual-Earner Couples in Britain and France: Gender Divisions of Domestic Labour and Parenting Work in Different Welfare States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan Windebank Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 269-290.
In recent years, much cross-national research on women's work has focused on the impact of the state in creating the conditions to enable women to combine paid work and motherhood. However, when dealing with women's domestic responsibilities, this research has concentrated heavily on caring functions, whilst largely ignoring the importance of other basic household chores. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the question of how state policy concerning women, work and childcare impacts on the ways in which parenting and domestic duties are constructed and distributed between mothers, fathers and others in the everyday experiences of individuals. The present article addresses both of these questions through evidence gathered from a qualitative cross-national comparative study of the child-care strategies of two groups of women, one French and one British, working in secretarial or clerical occupations, living with a partner and with at least one child aged under twelve. Minimal differences concerning the gender division of domestic and parenting work are discovered between these two national groups. This finding is then used to question some of the theoretical perspectives regarding the relationship between women's greater participation in employment and men's greater participation in domestic and parenting work.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Felstead, Nick Jewson, Annie Phizacklea Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 215-231.
It is frequently suggested that working at home will be the future of work for many people in the UK and that trends in this direction are already well underway. This paper examines these claims by analysing data from the Labour Force Survey which has, at various times, asked questions about the location of work. Seven key hypotheses are identified, including issues surrounding the extent and growth of working at home, reliance on information and communication technology, prevalence of low pay, average pay rates, gender issues, ethnic minority participation and household composition. The results paint a variegated and complex picture which suggests that those who work at home do not comprise a homogeneous group. The paper in particular highlights differences between non-manual and manual workers, and those who work mainly, partially and sometimes at home.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Tracey Warren, Karen Rowlingson, Claire Whyley Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 465-488.
The size and source of the gender wage gap in Britain has been well researched. Women's typically lower status employment and their reduced, discontinuous career profiles when they have caring responsibilities have combined seriously to damage their ability to earn a decent wage. Such marked gender differences in employment patterns produce a substantial gender gap in levels of wealth too, yet despite this there has been less attention paid to the gendering of assets than there has to gender differentials in earnings and income. So to pull out these multi-dimensional effects of a gender disadvantaged labour market, this article explores the extent of wage and assets inequality in Britain in the mid 1990s. Analysis of the Family Resources Survey shows that women continue to have lower incomes than men even with their increased entry to the labour market, and have fewer chances to build up a safety net of savings in their working lives and a good income for their retirement. It would seem that in a future Britain where individuals will increasingly depend on private pensions rather than a state minimum, even if women continue to increase their participation levels, the poverty they face in old age will persist.
Women in the Indian Informal Economy: Collective Strategies for Work Life Improvement and Development [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Hill Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 443-464.
Strategies for work life reform amongst informal sector workers in developing countries are currently dominated by resource-based approaches such as the micro-credit movement. This policy framework is predicated upon certain liberal assumptions about individual human action and the relationship between human behaviour and economic development. This article contends that these assumptions are inappropriate when applied to informal sector workers and their economic activities. A focus on the intersubjective conditions of work and economic development, based on the work of Axel Honneth (1995), provides an alternative way of conceptualising the work life experience of marginalised workers and appropriate interventions for economic and social security. An example of a collective strategy implemented by the Self Employed Womens' Association (SEWA) in India, demonstrates the important role that interpersonal recognition plays in activating worker identity and agency to achieve development. The success of SEWA's methodology has implications for how we think about the meaning of development and work life reform in poor countries, suggesting that interventions for economic and social security must engage workers at both the economic and cultural levels at which insecurity, moral injury and social exclusion are produced.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Janette Webb Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 825-844.
The paper describes the current employment patterns of men and women in local government in Scotland, Wales and England, and examines the gender relations of work during a period of restructuring which is challenging the professionalised welfare bureaucracy and replacing it with a managerialised state informed by market principles. Men are declining as a percentage of employees, alongside decreasing numbers of full-time jobs and increasing part-time and temporary contracts, suggesting some decrease in the relative desirability of public service employment. Nevertheless the challenges to traditional conceptions of paternalistic, bureaucratic welfare have facilitated women's increasing access to professional and managerial grades, but men have continued to dominate most positions of power and authority. The continuing gender divisions of labour, and women's perceptions of a sharper axis of gender conflict surrounding the period of reorganisation into single tier authorities in Scotland and Wales, suggest that it is not simply a matter of time until a rational, functional state eradicates remaining inequalities between the sexes. Neither however can a radical feminist perspective, which treats the state as bound to reproduce women's subordination, account for the degree of progressive change. Instead it is argued that there is genuine indeterminacy in the restructuring process, which, given women's representation and participation, seems likely to disrupt further the legacy of patriarchal relations informing the trajectory of state bureaucracies.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark R. Rosenzweig Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 40-54.
The empirical literature on savings in low-income countries has exploited some remarkable data sets to shed new light on savings behavior in the poor agricultural households that make up the majority of the population in such countries. A number of conclusions have emerged: 1. The degree of consumption smoothing over seasons within the year and across years, in response to very large income fluctuations, is higher than was supposed. 2. The lack of complete insurance and credit markets, however, is manifested in asset stocks and asset compositions among farmers, especially small farmers, that are inefficient. 3. The combination of low and volatile incomes is an important cause of inefficiency and income inequality. 4. The proximity of formal financial institutions increases financial savings and crowds out informal insurance arrangements, thus, in principle, better facilitating financial intermediation. 5. Simple life-cycle models of savings do not appear to explain long-term savings in low-income settings.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William J. Wilhelm Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 235-247.
Financial markets are markets for information. As such, they are directly influenced by advances in information dissemination, storage, and processing associated with the commercial development of the Internet. On the other hand, given the long-standing centrality of information in financial markets, the consequences of the Internet for financial markets can be understood as evolutionary rather than revolutionary. This paper provides a framework for understanding how the historical interplay between information technology and human capital has influenced financial market structure. In doing so, it sheds light on the recent reorganization of financial markets. Implications for reorganization of product markets where the impact of the Internet is more abrupt might be inferred.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Neil Gandal Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 80-91.
Given the dramatic growth of the Internet and information technology industries in general, and the importance of interconnection in these networks, the economics of compatibility and standardization has become mainstream economics. Several key policy aspects of standard-setting in industries with network effects are examined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Nickell, Glenda Quintini Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 202-220.
Both the overall macroeconomic performance of the UK labour market since 1997 are considered, as well as some of the underlying micro problems, particularly those facing unskilled workers. On the macro front, unemployment has declined to its lowest level for a generation without excessive inflationary pressure. The main factors behind this decline in equilibrium unemployment stem from actions taken by the previous government. Changes introduced in the labour market since 1997 are likely to have only small effects on equilibrium unemployment. Underlying this favourable aggregate labour-market performance are serious problems facing unskilled men who have seen dramatic increases in their unemployment and inactivity rates, concentrated particularly in Wales and the northern regions of Britain. The policy response since 1997 has focused on encouraging the unskilled into work (the New Deal) while simultaneously raising the rewards for working. These polices have had a positive impact on youth employment and have significantly reduced child poverty. So far, however, existing policies do not seem likely to have a serious impact on the high levels of worklessness among unskilled men.
Taxes and transfers 1997-2001 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Tom Clark, Andrew Dilnot, Alissa Goodman Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 187-201.
Significant change was made to both tax and benefits systems during the period 1997-2001. The impact of the changes which directly affect households is highly progressive, reflecting a significant increase in means-tested benefit levels. But the underlying distribution of income has moved such that overall inequality of income has not fallen, and the government has made less progress on reducing poverty than it had hoped. This paper described the aggregate impact of changes on the level of tax and public spending and on the composition of the tax system. The main changes that were introduced to the system are also discussed. The distributional impact of the main changes directed at personal incomes, and the direction of change in the structure of intervention by government in individual outcomes is presented.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Samantha Punch Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 803-823.
Many studies have examined the household division of labour from a gender perspective, but comparatively few have considered age and the intergenerational distribution of household work. Using empirical evidence from my ethnographic study of rural households in Bolivia, I argue that whilst adult household labour is highly determined by gender roles, children's unpaid household work often cuts across gender stereotypes and does not merely mirror the adult division of labour. Furthermore, this paper argues that it is not sufficient to include only an intergenerational and gender analysis of household divisions of labour but that other intragenerational issues also need to be considered. Drawing on both children's and adults' perspectives, this paper discusses the nature of generation-specific tasks not only by gender but also by age, birth order and sibling composition. Whilst the paper is based on a case study of a rural community in a low-income country, it highlights the importance of the sibling order which has frequently been overlooked or ignored in household divisions of labour throughout the world. The findings show that the allocation of household labour in rural Bolivia is worked out according to generation, age, gender, birth order and sibling composition.
The role of the state in skill formation: evidence from the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Francis Green, David Ashton, Donna James Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 82-96.
We propose a new interpretation of the role of the state in skill formation, with reference to three East Asian newly industrialized economies. Rather than see the state as simply redressing externalities, we interpret the state as matching the supply and demand for skills in a rapidly growing economy. This role can be superior to a strategy of allowing education and training institutions to be driven by autonomous processes. The role is most likely to be observed in developmental states. We examine the political mechanisms that have helped to ensure that educational and training policy formation are subordinated to the imperatives of economic growth. While the East Asian model cannot be imported wholesale to western countries such as Britain in different historical circumstances, the example lends credence to the value of the state taking a strategic approach to education and training policy.
The impact of the regulation of low wages on inequality and labour-market adjustment: A comparative analysis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Bazen Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 57-69.
In all continental European countries there exist non-market mechanisms that determine or regulate wage rates for the low-paid. The experience of three countries that have national minimum wages - France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - and three where low wage rates are determined through widespread collective bargaining - Germany, Italy, and Denmark, are considered. It is found that overall there is less inequality (both wage and income) and less poverty than in the UK and the US, where low wages are less regulated. Furthermore, patterns of labor-market adjustment - employment, unemployment, and gross job flows - vary greatly, suggesting that there is no one-to-one mapping between the presence of mechanisms to regulate low wages and labor-market performance. Furthermore, wage shares have been falling since the early 1980s. It is therefore difficult to attribute high and persistent rates of unemployment found in certain countries to the existence of mechanisms to regulate low wages.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Webster Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 114-128.
This paper argues that British welfare to work policies are inadequate, given the geographical concentration of worklessness in northern regions and in cities and former coalfields. While unemployment has been converging geographically, inactivity has not. All the welfare to work target groups - youth unemployed, long-term unemployed, lone parents, the long-term sick, and partners of the unemployed - have closely similar geographical distributions. Official arguments that there are adequate job vacancies everywhere are shown to be flawed. The geography of worklessness is largely explained by the weakness of adjustment through migration and commuting to the loss of jobs in manufacturing and mining, the cities being particularly affected by urban-rural manufacturing shift. Policy needs to promote more relevant employment in high unemployment areas, through increased spending on derelict land reclamation and on transport and other infrastructure. The case for more supportive policies towards manufacturing should also be considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yishay Yafeh Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 74-84.
Much has been written about the Japanese model of corporate governance. This article describes the evolution of corporate governance in Japan since the Second World War, and surveys the empirical evidence on its performance. Although there is substantial evidence on the effectiveness of the Japanese system, there is also evidence on its significant shortcomings. The article also evaluates the effects of the current macroeconomic and banking crises on corporate governance in Japan, and suggests possible directions for future changes, which are likely to make Japan more similar to the U.S. in this respect.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yutaka Imai, Masaaki Kawagoe Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 114-123.
It is argued that the comparatively low levels of business start-ups in Japan need not be a matter of concern insofar as the pattern of growth relying on existing companies persists. But the declining trend of start-up rates may be worrisome for it may indicate waning entrepreneurship and weakening mechanisms of resource reallocation and economic growth. Policy measures to promote business start-ups are not based on well founded studies at an aggregate level, which are lacking in the absence of comparable data, but rather are inspired by the successful U.S. experience. This paper looks into two specific areas of policy-private equity markets and bankruptcy-where important progress has been made, and points to further scope for improvement.