Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63905
Wages and unequal access to organizational power: An empirical test of gender discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mia Hultin, Ryszard Szulkin Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 3. P. 453-472.
This study of Swedish workers investigates gender wage inequality, specifically, whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of establishments' managerial and supervisory staff. Theoretical arguments focus on managers' propensity to create and maintain or to undermine institutionalized gender bias and employees' capacity to mobilize resources and establish claims in the wage distribution process, mainly through social networks. Results show that gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures is essential in explaining women's relatively low wages. Women who work in establishments in which relatively many of the managers are men have lower wages than women with similar qualifications and job demands in establishments with more women in the power structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ann E. Tenbrunsel, David M. Messick Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 4. P. 684-707.
Three studies are used to examine how surveillance and sanctioning systems affect cooperative behavior and dilemma situations. The first two studies demonstrate that a weak sanctioning system results in less cooperation and no sanctioning system; furthermore, results from the second study suggest that sanctions affect the type of decision people perceive they are making, prompting them to see it as a business rather than an ethical decision. The results from the studies are used to develop a theoretical model that postulates that the relationship between sanctions in cooperation is due to both the signaling effect, in which sanctions influence the type of decision that is perceived to be made, and a processing effect, in which the decision processing, including whether or not the strength of the sanction is considered, depends on the decision frame evoked. A third study provides support for the processing-effect hypothesis.
Friends in high places: The effects of social networks on discrimination in salary negotiations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marc-David L. Seidel, Jeffrey T. Polzer, Katherine J. Stewart Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-24.
This article tests hypotheses about the effects of social networks on inequitable salary negotiation outcomes using a US high-technology company's salary negotiation data for 1985-1995. The paper finds that members of racial minority groups negotiated significantly lower salary increases than majority members, but this effect was dramatically reduced when social ties to the organization were controlled. Having a social tie to the organization significantly increased salary negotiation outcomes, and minorities were less likely than majority members to have such a social tie.
How experience and network ties affect the influence of demographic minorities on corporate boards [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James D. Westphal, Laurie P. Milton Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 2. P. 366-398.
This study examines how the influence of directors who are demographic minorities on corporate boards is contingent on the prior experience of board members and the larger socia structural context in which demographic differences are embedded. The effects of minority status are assessed according to functional background, industry background, education, race, and gender for a large sample of corporate outside directors at Fortune/Forbes 500 companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gautam Ahuja Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 3. P. 425-455.
To assess the effects of a firm's network of relations on innovation, this paper elaborates a theoretical framework that relates 3 aspects of a firm's ego network - direct ties, indirect ties, and structural holes - to the firm's subsequent innovation output. Results from a longitudinal study of firms in the international chemicals industry indicate support for the predictions on direct and indirect ties, but in the inter-firm collaboration network, increasing structural holes has a negative effect on innovation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Thomas D'Aunno, Melissa Succi, Jeffrey C. Alexander Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 679-703.
This paper focuses on a radical change, in which organizations abandon an institutionalized template for arranging their core activities, that is likely to occur in organizational fields that have strong, local market forces and strong but heterogeneous institutional forces. The role of market forces and heterogeneous institutional elements in promoting divergent change in core activities among all U.S. rural hospitals from 1984 to 1991 is examined. Results support the view that divergent change depends on both market forces (proximity to competitors, disadvantages in service mix) and institutional forces (state regulation, ownership and governance norms, and mimicry of models of divergent change).
Agency and social networks: Strategies of action in a social structure of position, opposition, and opportunity [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William B. Stevenson, Danna Greenberg Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 651-678.
This study uses social movement concepts to explain the success and failure of actors in a network of relationships trying to influence policies on environmental issues in a small city. Results show that strategies to take action and mobilize others in a network of interorganizational relationships can vary depending on the social context, which consists of the political opportunity structure defined by government regulators, whether the actor faces opposition, and the actor's position in the network. Decisions to engage in strategies to try to influence government regulators directly, to use a broker to reach agreements with the opposition, or to form a coalition with actors in other organizations to influence government decision makers are affected by this social context. Results also show that even peripheral actors, usually assumed to be powerless in network studies, can influence policy if they use a direct-contact strategy and the political opportunity structure is favorable.
Challengers, elites, and owning families: A social class theory of corporate acquisitions in the 1960s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Donald Palmer Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 1. P. 87-120.
This paper analyzes data on 461 large US industrial corporations to determine that factors that led large firms to participate in the wave of diversifying acquisitions that peaked in the late 1960s. A class theory of corporate acquisitions is elaborated on and tested, maintaining that firms pursue acquisitions in this periods when they were commended by well-networked challenges who were central in elite social networks but relatively marginal with respect to social status, isolated from the resistance of established elites, and free from control of owning families. Also considered is a wide range of factors highlighted by alternative accounts of acquisition likelihood, including resource dependent, institutional pressures, and principle-agent conflicts. The results provide support for the moan theoretical arguments, even when controls related to alternative explanations are taken into account.
Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robin J. Ely, David A. Thomas Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 229-273.
This paper develops theory about the conditions under which cultural diversity enhances or detracts from work group functioning. From qualitative research in three culturally diverse organizations, three different perspectives on workforce diversity are identified: 1. the integration-and-learning perspective, 2. the access-and-legitimacy perspective, and 3. the discrimination-and-fairness perspective. The perspective on diversity a work group held influenced how people expressed and managed tensions related to diversity, whether those who had been traditionally underrepresented in the organization felt respected and valued by their colleagues, and how people interpreted the meaning of the racial identity at work. By identifying the conditions that intervene between the demographic composition of a work group and its functioning, the research helps to explain mixed results on the relationship between cultural diversity and work group outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yadong Luo Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 177-20.
This study examines how personal attachments between boundary spanners within cross-cultural international cooperative ventures (ICV) are established and their association with venture performance. Results of analysis of 282 ICVs in an emerging market, the People's Republic of China, show that the development depends on factors at three levels. At the individual level, attachment is an increasing function of overlap in tenure between boundary spanners. At the organizational level, attachment is heightened by goal congruity between the parent firms but is impeded by cultural distance. At the environmental level, market disturbance and regulatory deterrence lead to strong attachments. Such attachments may stimulate an ICV's process performance and increase financial returns.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jesper B. Sorensen Administrative Science Quarterly. 2002. Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 70-91.
Prevailing research claims that strong corporate cultures improve firm performance by facilitating internal behavioral consistency. This paper addresses an unexamined implication of this argument by analyzing the effect of strong corporate cultures on the variability of firm performance. This relationship depends on how strong cultures affect organizational learning in response to internal and external change. It is hypothesized that strong-culture firms excel at incremental change but encounter difficulties in more volatile environments. Results of analyses of a sample of firms show that in relatively stable environments, strong-culture firms have more reliable (less variable) performance. In volatile environments, however, the reliability benefits of strong cultures disappear.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert A. Baron, Gideon D. Markman Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 106-116.
Why are some entrepreneurs so much more successful than others in starting new ventures? Previous efforts to answer this question have generally focused either in the personality traits of susceptibility to various cognitive errors of individual entrepreneurs, or on such external factors as the number of competing businesses. It is suggested that entrepreneurs' social skills - specific competencies that help them interact effectively with others - may also play a role in their success.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Maurice E. Schweitzer, Jeffrey L. Kerr Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 47-57.
Managers consume alcohol across a broad range of organizational contexts. In many cases, alcohol is consumed with little or no consideration of the risks or benefits involved. This paper identifies hazards of managerial drinking, as well as the role alcohol can play in developing relationships. It is argued that the decision to consume alcohol should be made rationally and strategically, and advice is offered for managers setting corporate policy or making individual decisions to consume alcohol.
Differential effects of parental involvement on cognitive and behavioral outcomes by socioeconomic status [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ralph B. McNeal Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 171-179.
Using the concepts of cultural and social capital, a theoretical framework is provided for why there would exist differential effects of parental involvement across cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The variable relationships between involvement and each outcome are investigated by socioeconomic status.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mildred Warner Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 187-192.
This paper explores the constructability of social capital and specifically the role formal state supported institutions can play in structuring community level interventions to build social capital.
Is the good corporation dead? The community social responsibility of small business operators [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Terry L. Besser, Nancy J. Miller Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 221-241.
This study examined whether social responsibility is a meaningful characteristic with which to differentiate businesses given its supposed demise in the new global economy. The analysis focuses on small businesses and the social responsibility of businesses toward their community. Community social responsibility and competitive strategies were measured by the self reports of 675 small business operators in 10 Iowa cities. Cluster analysis revealed 4 categories of business operators designated as: 1. civic leaders, 2. alienated business operators, 3. followers in high collective action communities, and 4. followers in low collective action communities. Business owners and managers can be differentiated on the basis of community social responsibility. In spite of changes in the economy, a significant segment of small business operators believe in tenets of the enlightened self interest model of business social responsibility, that is, that doing good is good business.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John F. Tomer Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 243-261.
Drawing on important insights from psychological and other noneconomic literature and combining these with economic insights, a careful explanation of why addictive behavior is not rational is provided and a socio-economic model is developed to explain addictive behavior. The model incorporates a much broader conception of human behavior than does mainstream economics, and a broader recognition of the variety of factors that influence human behavior. The model is consistent with intuitive wisdom and the wisdom of religious and spiritual traditions. There is much scope for further research.
A behavioral model of labor supply: Casting some light into the black box of income-leisure choice [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Morris Altman Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 199-219.
The economics of labor supply, a basic building block of economic theory, cannot provide any substantive analytical predictions on the course of labor supply by an individual or a group. This is largely due to the absence, in the theory of income-leisure choice, of any consequential behavioral content which speaks to existing and changing preferences of individuals and to the differences in preferences across individuals. Introducing a discussion of preferences into the argument, in particular target real income and target nonmarket time, provides for a richer model of labor supply and for a more precise set analytical predictions with important public policy implications.
Economic man vs. heterodox men: The concepts of human nature in schools of economic thought [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John F. Tomer Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 4. P. 281-293.
Economic man, the man who acts on pure economic motives alone, is the concept of man at the heart of mainstream economics. Heterodox economists, while acknowledging that economic man has served usefully for some purposes, know in different ways that economic man is, because it leaves out too much of human nature, a deficient concept of man. They are uncomfortable at best with the idea of characterizing humans in such a reductionist way. This paper proposes to use the comprehensive view of human nature developed by Ken Wilber to point to the specific deficiencies of economic man. With Wilber's model of human development as the backdrop, it is possible to map the different schools of thought with respect to each other, showing how each of their overlapping conceptions of man include some important elements missing in economic man but fail to include other elements.
A focus group study of the motivation to invest: 'Ethical/green' and 'ordinary' investors compared [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Lewis Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 4. P. 331-341.
Forty-five ordinary investors, in 7 focus groups, and 49 ethical/green investors in a further 7 focus groups discussed their various motivations for investing. Interpretations of the results were produced with the aid of NUDIST software and repeated readings of the transcriptions. Neither ordinary nor especially ethical investors were keen to attribute solely economic motives to themselves revealing instead their need to provide for future selves and to bequeath. Ethical/green investors primarily mentioned avoiding companies who manufacture munitions, are exploitative, and who pollute. Many participants, especially the ethicals, felt an unease about contemporary capitalism and current UK government policy, suggesting that ethical investing had become a necessity because of government failure and that it could change the commercial world for the better although the process was admittedly a slow one. This paper aims to enrich the notion of rational economic man.