Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63887
Overview of Leadership in Organizations [интернет ресурс]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Nicolai J. Foss, Volker Mahnke
We argue that strategizing fundamentally concerns disequilibrium phenomena, such as discovery, innovation, resource-combination, imagination - in short, entrepreneurship. Therefore, the understanding of strategizing is likely to be led astray by drawing too heavily on equilibrium theories. Arguably, the three dominant economic approaches to strategy - the Porter industry analysis approach, the new industrial organization, and the ressourcebased approach - are characterized precisely by their strong reliance on equilibrium methodology. We argue that the market process approach in its Austrian version offers much inspiration for bringing process issues to bear on strategy issues.
On the Foundations of the Strategic Theory of the Firm: Should We Rely on Governance, Capabilities, or Both? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Nicolai J. Foss Management Report. 1997. No. 16.
This paper is taken up with discussing the extent to which existing economic theories of the firm are helpful for constructing what Rumelt called a strategic theory of the firm. Such a theory explains the existence, boundaries, organization and competitive advantage of the firm. The modern economics of organization (e.g., agency theory, transaction cost economics, incomplete contracts theory) is characterized by the heuristic of reducing literally all aspects of economic organization to the alignment of incentives. It thus arguably misrepresents many management and strategy issues. On the other hand, the dominant contender, the capabilities perspective, is lacking in several respects, for example, with respect to its lack of crisp microfoundations, and its inability to predict, explain ownership and explain the existence of the firm. The best way forward in the construction of a strategic theory of the firm is probably to draw eclectically on both approaches.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Brian H. Kleiner, Mike W. Papin Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology. 1998. Vol. 70. No. 1. P. 38-44.
This research paper was written in the Summer of 1995 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Management 524 within the MBA program at California State University at Fullerton. Its purpose was to determine the effective management strategies within the aerospace industry since the defense budget began to decline in the mid 1980s. Through research of the top aerospace companies (according to the 1995 Fortune 500) over the past decade, this paper examines the various long-term management strategies employed during the recent recession.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Ria Duddy, Jay Kandampully Management Decisions. 1999. Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 51-56.
While service quality has proved an essential ingredient in convincing customers to choose one organisation over another, many organisations have realised that maintaining excellence on a consistent basis is imperative if they are to gain customer loyalty. This long-term perspective has created a strong shift in orienting service strategy towards a service promise. Moreover, in the present competitive setting, if one were to understand the lifetime value of a customer, creating and maintaining long-term relationships with the customer and other stakeholders is paramount to an organisations market leadership. Relentless advances in technology have rendered products and services with ever shorter life cycles and, hence, diminished customer appeal. This paper argues that firms are required not only to improve, but to innovate products and services and anticipate customer needs on a continuous basis. It is highlighted here that, in order to maintain a longterm relationship with the customer, firms need to demonstrate their ability to think for the customer, and to conceive and implement new ways to serve them better. Moreover, in order to develop and maintain customer relationships, an organisation needs the assistance and partnership of their respective stakeholders; for example, employees, suppliers and distributors.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Kazem Chaharbaghi, Richard Lynch Management Decisions. 1999. Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 45-50.
This paper introduces the concept of strategic advantage and distinguishes it from competitive advantage. This concept helps to explain the full nature of sustainable competitive advantage through uncovering the dynamics of resource-based strategy. A new classification of resources emerges, demonstrating that rents are more relevant than profits in the analysis of sustainable competitive advantage.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Hao Ma Management Decisions. 1999. Vol. 37. No. 3. P. 259-266.
Competitive advantage arises from the differential among firms along any dimension of firm attributes and characteristics that allows one firm to better create customer value than do others. Generic sources of competitive advantage include ownership of assets or position; access to distribution and supply, as well as proficiency knowledge, competence, and capability in business operation. To achieve and sustain competitive advantage, a firm needs to creatively and proactively exploit the three generic sources, preempt rivals' attempt at these sources, and/or pursue any combination of proactive and preemptive efforts. Juxtaposing creation and preemption as well as ownership-based, accessbased, and proficiency-based sources, this article advances an integrative framework that helps management practitioners systematically analyze the nature and cause of competitive advantage.
Competitiveness in the new economy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Petri Rouvinen ETLA. 1970. No. 768.
This paper devises an e-competitiveness index attempting to measure the ability of a nation to exploit information and communication technology (ICT) to the fullest. Results of the analysis show that Finland is highly specialized in ICT provision, it has good premises to exploit ICT to the fullest, but that it is not amongst the leading users of ICT.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Timothy J. Brailsford, Barry R. Oliver, Sandra L. H. Pua
Agency theory embeds the influential relationship that exist between managers and shareholders of firms. This relationship has the potential to influence decision-making in the firm which in turn has potential impacts on firm characteristics such as firm value. Prior evidence has demonstrated an association between ownership structure and firm value. This paper extends the literature by proposing a further link between ownership structure and capital structure. Using an agency framework we argue that the distribution of equity ownership among corporate managers and external blockholders has a significant relationship with leverage. The paper tests four hypotheses that explore various aspects of this relationship. The empirical results provide support for a positive relationship between external blockholders and leverage, a curvilinear relationship between the level of managerial share ownership and leverage and finally, the results suggest that the relationship between external block ownership and leverage varies across the level of managerial share ownership. These results parallel and are consistent with the active monitoring hypothesis, convergence-of-interests and the entrenchment hypotheses which have been proposed in a different context.
Adaptive Learning Routines and Time in Strategic Decision-Making Processes in Emerging Markets [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Li-Choy Chong, Klaus Kukovetz
This paper attempts to map out the learning routines of organizations in adapting their decision-making processes to the emerging market environment of China. The ability to increase the speed and quality of learning through conscious exploitation of learning routines would bring about better performance faster and hence would be of strategic importance to the firm. The findings have shown that this can be achieved through improving the efficiency of learning routines, e.g. through intentional learning, the employment of experienced decision-making agents, or better timing of actions and interventions. Strategic time concepts are found to be extremely relevant.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Alejandro Escriba-Esteve, Martina Menguzzato-Boulard
Some researchers have pointed out that the mere formation of an alliance is not sufficient guarantee for the achievement of its potential benefits. During its implementation, the behaviour of the companies will play a key role for the appropriate development of the relationship. Through a case study methodology of research, the authors analyse why in some agreements a more cooperative relationship is reached among the partners than in others. The authors tried to advance in the knowledge about the determinant factors of the partners behaviour in both international and domestic strategic alliances. A theoretical model related to the determinant factors of the cooperative behaviour is the major result of this paper.
Stata [компьютерная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Stata is an environment for manipulating and analyzing data using statistical and graphical methods. Stata is an integrated package not a collection of separate modules. You can intersperse data management, statistical, and graphical commands. Stata, an integrated statistical package for Windows, Macintosh, and Unix, is designed for research professionals and is distributed in 124 countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Will Mitchell, Pierre Dussauge, Bernard Garrett
This study addresses two main questions: First, what types of alliances do firms tend to create when combining different kinds of resources? Second, what governance mechanisms do firms set up to coordinate and protect resources when they use them for different alliances? The authors examine 227 alliances between competitors in Asia, North America, and Europe. We first identify two types of alliances: scale alliances in which the partner firms contribute similar resources, and link alliances in which the partners contribute complementary resources. As a resoult it was founded that firms contributing R&D and production resources tend to form scale alliances, while firms contributing marketing resources tend to enter into link alliances. The authors also conclude that firms are more likely to choose stronger protection mechanisms for link alliances, which create greater appropriation risks, while they tend to seek higher levels of coordination in scale alliances.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Arnaldo Camuffo
The paper discusses the relationship between globalization and, modularization and outsourcing in the auto industry. It maintains that modularity is a broad concept, applicable and applied to product design, manufacturing and organization and that modularization is a strategy aimed at reducing the complexity stemming from globalization of products, markets and production. However, modularity has only recently moved its first steps in auto design and manufacturing and is a vaguely defined and ambiguously used concept in the auto industry. The paper suggests that, in the auto industry, economic and institutional factors related to globalization represent key drivers of modularization as much as technology. Besides, as the auto industry globalize, modularization and outsourcing, though remaining conceptually distinct, tend to become, in practice, increasingly inseparable.
Generating Cooperative Behavior Between The Unacquainted: A Case Study Of The Renault/Nissan Alliance Formation Process [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Pierre-Yves Gomez, Harry Korine, Olivier Masclef
How can unacquainted organizations generate cooperative behavior? The researchers address this question in a case study of the process that leads to a strategic alliance between French and Japanese auto-makers Renault and Nissan - two organizations with no prior basis for a core of cooperative behavior to exist. Analyzed in the spirit of theory development, the case study turns on inter-individual processes and time. The data lead us to a gift-theoretical interpretation. Building upon the fundamental anthropological idea of gift / contra-gift (Mauss, 1925/1990) to describe cooperative behaviors between unacquainted individuals, researchers articulate how different types of gifts and the pace of reciprocal giving are employed to generate cooperative behavior over time. Critically for practical relevance and theoretical scope, the gift-theoretical approach developed does not impose linearity: the generation of cooperative behavior can be routinized, escalated, or even reversed. To the literature on cooperation in inter-organizational relationships, researchers offer an interpretative framework for further theoretical elaboration and empirical testing. To the literature on strategic alliances, researchers present the groundwork for bringing the "beginning back in" to the study of how partnerships evolve.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Joerg Funder
The business model construct as a unifying unit of analysis, that captures the value creation arising from multiple sources has been proposed by several scholars as a fruitful base for research but the question how to change business models in order to achieve that value has not been answered. It is proposed, that the organizations business model is the essential logic for combining resources and capabilities for consistently achieving its principle objectives and to perform the core activities of the organization. Furthermore it is proposed, that it is this configuration of resources and capabilities, which enable a firm to deliver unique value and consequently confer a competitive advantage. The dynamic reconfiguration and integration of resources and capabilities is referred to as a business model change. This paper is focused on offering provable propositions on the modification of capabilities concerning their influence for a business model change, and follows the two main assumptions of entrepreurship research: entrepreneurship is residing in Individuals versus entrepreneurship is enabled by a specific context.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Sophia Philippidou, Klas Eric Soderquist, Gregory P. Prastacos
Building on coevolution theory and existing knowledge about strategic and organizational change, this paper develops a conceptual framework for studying change in organizations as coevolution. The focus is on how organizations create constructed environmental conditions, hence forming the context for themselves and other organizations and their environment. The paper illustrates this problematic by focusing on the interplay between public and private organizations. A set of propositions and an integrated framework laying the ground for future empirical research are developed.
Sources Of Competitive Advantage Of The Business Firms In The Slovenian Transforming Economy: Could We Explain Them By Existing Theories [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Danijel Pucko
The paper deals with the issues of what sources of competitive advantage have been activated most frequently in the Slovenian business firms in the last years and how well they can be explained by the existing theories. The research is based on the empirical survey that was carried out in the period from November 2000 to March 2001 in the Slovenian (mostly) medium and large business firms. The responses for the questionnaire that had been prepared were collected in randomly chosen 77 business firms (the banking sector was excluded).
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Rita D. Medina-Muсoz, Diego R. Medina-Muсoz
The establishment of cooperative relationships with other organizations is becoming something crucial to businesses, in a way that strategic alliances or interorganizational relationships (IR) constitute an important topic for research in management literature. This study analyzes interorganizational control (IC), which represents one of the processes within IR that is receiving greater attention in the literature, from a knowledge-based perspective. Besides describing its concept and dimensions, the effect of the knowledge to be transferred in the context of IR on IC is also assessed. To be specific, there is an analysis of the influence of the characteristics of the knowledge and the extent of assimilation of knowledge by the other partners on the extent of control and control types and mechanisms. Empirical evidence is provided by our study of the relationship between tour operators from Germany and the United Kingdom and the accommodation companies, which revolves around the control exercised by the tour operators over the accommodation companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Cristina Quintana Garcia, Carlos A. Benavides Velasco
In this paper, first of all, a review of theoretical perspectives of co-opetition is made, and then, the authors identify alternative types of strategic behavior from the combination of competitive and cooperative attitudes. The aim of presented empirical study was to analyze correlation between different strategic behavior and performance. Particularly, the hypothesis was contrasted in the biotechnology industry.