Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63941
Is there an underclass in Britain? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Buckingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 49-75.
The underclass is defined and the predictions are tested of three competing theories in the underclass debate. Using the National Child Development Study for the analysis it is found that an underclass suffering from a lack of qualifications, low cognitive ability and chronic joblessness exists. The validity of making a distinction between the working class and an underclass has often been questioned both because of the dubious history of such a distinction and because it is not believed that such a distinction is empirically true. The results contradict this assertion by finding the underclass to be distinctive from the working class in terms of patterns of family formation, work commitment and political allegiance. The distinct attitudes of the underclass, when coupled with evidence of inter- and intra-generational stability of membership, provide early evidence that a new social class, the underclass, may now exist in Britain.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen, John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 1-27.
Saunders' (1996, 1997) recent work claiming that contemporary British society is to a large extent 'meritocratic' is criticized on conceptual and technical grounds. A reanalysis of the National Child Development Study data-set, used by Saunders, is presented. This reveals that while merit, defined in terms of ability and effort, does play a part in determining individuals' class destinations, the effect of class origins remains strong. Children of less advantaged origins need to show substantially more merit than children from more advantaged origins in order to gain similar class positions. These differences in findings to some extent arise from the correction of biases introduced by Saunders; but there are also features of his own results, consistent with those reported in the reanalysis, which he appears to not fully have appreciated.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Ingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 76-96.
A conception of money as a neutral veil masking a real economy was adopted by economic theory after the Methodenstreit, and is also to be found, in a different form, in Marxian political economy. Both derive from an erroneous functionalist and anachronistic commodity theory of money which, as Post-Keynesian economists argue, cannot explain the distinctive form of capitalist credit-money. Orthodox economic theory and classic Marxism have tacitly informed and flawed historical sociology's understanding of money's role in capitalist development. Mann (1986) and Runciman (1989), for example, consider the economy exclusively in terms of the social relations of production and imply that money is epiphenomenal and is to be explained as a response to the needs of the real economy. They do not recognize the structural specificity of capitalist money and banking nor its importance. An alternative account of the autonomous historical conditions of existence of the specifically capitalist form of bank and state credit-money and its role in capitalist development is outlined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Andreas Buss British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 317-329.
Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1958), studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. It is suggested the Weber's subsequent essays on The Economic Ethics of World Religions (1958, 1959) are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. The concept of causal adequacy and the related concept of objective possibility are developed on hte basis of the work of v. Kries on who Weber heavily relied. This concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the spirit of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Iganski, Geoff Payne British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 195-215.
The consequences of major changes in employment, due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of the service sector, have not been well-documented, nor theorized, in the sociology of ethnic relations, even in recent studies. By adapting data from the Labour Force Survey and the Census, the gap is addressed with a detailed account of 3 main minority ethnic groups, and a separate analysis of male and female employment. It is demonstrated that, contrary to assumptions that members of the minority ethnic groups suffered most from de-industrialization, they actually did rather well, and in some cases did better than the majority population. These findings are reconceptualized as collective social mobility, as part of a review of a number of conceptual frameworks in the light of the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rod Bond, Peter Saunders British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 217-249.
Using data from the National Child Development Study, a complex path model is developed predicting the occupational grade achieved by 4,298 employed British males at age 33. Using various measures of class origins, parental support, qualifications, and individual ability and ambition, a linear structural equations model is developed which achieves a good fit to the data. The model demonstrates that individual ability is by far the strongest influence on occupational achievement, that motivation is also important, and that factors like class background and parental support, while significant, are relatively much weaker. It is concluded that occupational selection in Britain appears to take place on meritocratic principles.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James A. Beckford British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 671.
Critical responses to the application of Rational Choice theories to the study of religious phenomena tend to be polarized between outright denial that the theories have any relevance to religion and equally outspoken claims that the theories are the only hope for progress in the sociology of religion. Both of these extreme positions are avoided by raising a question, instead, about one of Rational Choice's central propositions about religion. This proposition holds that levels of religious vitality vary positively with the degree to which agencies of the state are prevented from regulating religious activity. The findings of recent research into prison chaplaincy in the UK and the US are used to test this claim. The main argument is that the existence of an established church has facilitated a higher level of religious activity, especially for minority faiths, in prisons in England and Wales than is possible in US prisons.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Gay British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 575-587.
In his highly regarded and influential Modernity and the Holocaust Zygmunt Bauman launched one of the most passionate and sustained critiques of bureaucracy rationality seen within social theory for some time. In so doing he drew heavily upon the work of Max Weber for support. The extent to which Weber really is the anti-bureaucratic ally Bauman claims him to be is examined. The main elements of Bauman's critique of bureaucratic rationality is outlined, drawing particular attention to its reliance upon a self-consciously Weberian theoretical lexicon. It is indicated that, despite his claims to be following in Weber's tracks, Bauman's conclusions regarding the moral vacuity of bureaucratic conduct are the very antithesis of Weber's own.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Manuel Castells British Journal of Sociology. . Vol. 51. No. 1. P. 5-24.
Some elements for a grounded theory of the network society are outlined. The network society is the social structure characteristic of the Information Age, as tentatively identified by empirical, cross-cultural investigation. It permeates most societies in the world, in various cultural and institutional manifestations, as the industrial society characterized the social structure both capitalism and statism for most of the twentieth century. Social structures are organized around relationships of production/consumption, power, and experience, whose spatio-temporal configurations constitute cultures. They are enacted, reproduced, and ultimately transformed by social actors, rooted in the social structure, yet freely engaging in conflictive social practices, with uupredictable outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wendy Bottero, Sarah Irwin British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 261-280.
This paper explores recent arguments about the marketization of female labor, in the context of a wider analysis of the role of concepts like 'the market' and 'individualization' in sociological accounts of change in employment relations. It will be argued that within sociology there has been a tendency for rapid, large-scale changes in employment relations to be characterized as the breakdown of social influences or structures and as the emergence of atomized, individuated market forces. In the most recent models, change in the nature of gendered positions within employment are presented in terms of a decline of social structuring and social constraint. These emergent accounts hold similarities to classical economics, and to Marx's and Weber's accounts of employment, which also characterized new forms of employment relations in terms of the emptying of their social content and their repl placement by market forms. An alternative, moral economy, perspective which foregrounds the continued significance of social relations in the structuring of employment and employment change is offered. The argument is developed through an analysis of gendered patterns of employment and change in family form.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Christel Lane British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 207-234.
A small number of German multinational corporations are examined in their domestic and international context. More particularly, the work focuses on whether and how their emergent globalization activities affect the reproduction or erosion of the three institutional complexes which shape the factors of production: the financial system; the innovation system; and the industrial relations system. The paper concludes that a new type of transformation - hybridization - is emerging. It is regarded as a consequence of German companies' growing integration into a global economic system.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Heidi Gottfried British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 235-259.
This paper adopts a regulation framework to chart the emergence of neo-Fordism as a flexible accumulation regime and mode of social regulation. Neo-Fordism relies on old Fordist principles as well as incorporating new models of emergent post-Fordisms; old and new social relationships, in their particular combination, specify the trajectory of national variants. It is argued that Fordist bargains institutionalized the terms of a compromise between labor, capital and the state. These bargains embedded a male-breadwinner gender contract compromising women's positions and standardardizing employment contracts around the needs, interests and authority of men. A focus on compromises and contracts makes visible the differentiated gender effects of work transformation in each country.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hadfield, Steve Hall, Dick Hobbs British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 707-717.
This paper focuses upon the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society. This emergence features two key processes: firstly a shift in economic development from the industrial to the post-industrial; secondly a significant orientation of urban governance involving a move away from the traditional managerial functions of local service provision, towards an en trepreneurial stance primarily focused on the facilitation of economic growth. Central to this new economic era is the identification and promotion of liminality. The State's apparent inability to control these new leisure zones constitutes the creation of an urban frontier that is governed by commercial imperatives.
In search of the wage-labour/service contract: New evidence on the validity of the Goldthorpe class schema [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans, Colin Mills British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 755-756.
In this paper we examine new empirical evidence on the coherence and magnitude of the main classes in the Goldthorpe class schema. Particular attention is paid to issues that have recently been a source of academic dispute: the coherence and size of the service class and the distinction between the service class and intermediate classes. Using recently available British data collected by the Office for National Statistics we examine: 1. the extent to which measures of class-relevant job characteristics are empirically discriminated by the categories of the schema, 2. the structure of a contract type dimension of employment relations conceived of as a categorical latent variable, and 3. the association between this latent variable and both the Goldthorpe class schema and a related measure socio-economic group (SEG).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Adam Swift British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 663-679.
Abstract: Distinguishing between an explanatory and a normative interest in social stratification, this paper considers the relation between class analysis and the value of equality. Starting from the familiar distinction between (in)equality of position and (in)equality of opportunity, and noting the extent to which mobility research focuses on the latter, it suggests that class positions can themselves be characterized in terms of the opportunities they yield to those occupymg them. This enables the clear identification of the kinds of inequality that are and are not addressed by research findings presented in terms of class categories, and odds ratios. The significance of those findings from a normative perspective is then discussed, and their limitations are emphasized - though the paper also explains in what ways they are indeed of normative relevance.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nonna Barkhatova, Peter McMylor, Rosemary Mellor British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 249-269.
Aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia are explored via a series of interview-based case studies. The origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union are noted. The complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs are revealed and it is suggested that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke, Oriel Sullivan British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 331-347.
Some macro-sociological questions about changes in broad categories of time-use are addressed. Reference is made to some well-known sociological and historical accounts of such change, and to the fact that time-use diary data has only relatively recently become available for analyzing trends over time. The data used are drawn from a comparative cross-time data archive held by the Institute for Social and Economic Research at Essex University, comprising successive time-use diary surveys from a range of industrialized countries collected from the 1960s to the 1990s. The time use evidence suggests relative stability in the balance between work and leisure time over the period covered by the analyses. Some alternative explanations are advanced for why there seems to be a gap between this evidence and, on the one hand, the burgeoning literature in both academic and popular media addressing the time famine and, on the other, people's professed experience of what is happening to their time.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 293-312.
The BSE problem as an example of the globalization of risk is examined. In order to determine whether the globalization of risk is a social construction depending on the context, the particular role of organizations is emphasized. An empirical comparison is made of the BSE-related risk-constructions of 5 business associations in the German meat industry sector. Results show that the associations construct the risk in close relation to their horizons of globalization, thereby reflecting provision problems, which the companies they are representing face. While the main organizational domains in the sector tried to cope with the risk problem by different means of local market closure, one association, founded in reaction to the BSE problem, took over a reflexive role with regard to the emerging risk communication on BSE in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sawako Shirahase British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 391-408.
This paper discusses whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into Japan's labor market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husbands' class positions. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husbands'. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labor market but also to the division of labor by gender within the household.
The material and the symbolic in theorizing social stratification: Issues of gender, ethnicity and class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Floya Anthias British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 367-390.
Within most approaches to stratification gender and ethnicity are seen to pertain primarily to the symbolic or cultural realms, while class is regarded as pertaining to material inequality. This constructs gender and ethnic positioning as entailing honor, deference, worth, value and differential treatment (sometimes expressed through the notion of status), but the social relations around these are themselves not seen as constitutive of social stratification. This study rethinks social stratification away from the polarity between the material and the symbolic, and argues that material inequality, as a set of outcomes relating to life conditions, life chances and solidary processes, is informed by claims and struggles over resources of different types, undertaken in terms of gender, ethnicity/race and class. This formulation allows for the inclusion of these categorial formations, alongside class, as important elements of social stratification i.e. as determining the allocation of socially valued resources and social places/locations.