Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63895
Complementarity in the Innovation Strategy: Internal R&D, External Technology Acquisition, and Cooperation in R&D [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Bruno Cassiman, Reinhilde Veugelers
Successful innovation depends on the development and integration of new knowledge in the innovation process. In order to successfully innovate, the firm will combine different innovation activities. In addition to doing own research and development, firms typically are engaged in the acquisition of knowledge on the technology market and cooperate actively in R&D with other firms and research organizations. In this paper the authors provide evidence on complementarity between different innovation activities. Using data from the Community Innovation Survey on Belgian manufacturing firms, the authors show that firms that are only engaged in a single innovation strategy, either internal R&D activities or sourcing technology externally, introduced fewer new or substantially improved products compared to firms which combine internal and external sourcing. This result is consistent with complementarity between own R&D and external technology sourcing activities. Furthermore, the authors show that the different innovation activities are strongly positively correlated and identify common drivers, resulting in the perceived complementarity between these innovation activities. An important finding is that a capacity to strategically protect intellectual property and a more basic R&D base which may serve as an absorptive capacity, are important common drivers for the different innovation activities.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Morten Huse, Jonas Gabrielsson
Considerable attention has been directed towards corporate governance issues in recent years. There are however various limitations in the international mainstream research on boards of directors. Few studies address research questions beyond investigating the relationship between board composition and company performance. Most research is moreover based on empirical evidence from large publicly held US corporations. This paper summarises the accumulated knowledge from 100 student reports on boards of directors in Scandinavia. The contributions of the reports show the need to explore the influence of various contingencies, and also to take various stakeholder perspectives into account when researching corporate governance and boards of directors. The reports also show the need to go beyond counting only numbers of directors to gain insight into board working structures and relationships between directors and managers. Several advantages compared to the US mainstream research tradition can in this connection be found in Scandinavian research about boards of directors.
International Journal of Forecasting [интернет ресурс]
The International Journal of Forecasting is the leading journal in its field. It is the official publication of the International Institute of Forecasters (IIF) and shares its aims and scope. More information about
Time Series [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Guido M. Kuersteiner
The course is an introduction to univariate and multivariate time series models. It starts by introducing basic concepts and progresses to more complicated models. The course intends to meet two goals. It provides tools for empirical work with time series data and is an introduction into the theoretical foundation of time series models.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Lars Behrenz Journal of Applied Economics. 2001. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 255-278.
In the literature of labor economics we find many examples of studies analyzing job seekers search behavior, but few examples of the corresponding analysis of the recruitment behavior of employers. This paper gives a picture of the recruitment behavior of Swedish employers. The analysis is based on about 800 telephone interviews with employers regarding the last person they had hired. This paper relates the lemons problem in Akerlof with the Spence signaling model, and then it proceeds to relate indices and signals to the hiring behavior of employers. Employers mainly recruit personnel in order to expand a certain activity of their firm. On an average the total recruitment process takes about a month. In first round employers mainly look for job seekers with good education and experience. During the job interview the employer search for persons with professional knowledge, personal engagement and social competence
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Cara L. Brown Feminist Economics. 1998. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 89-95(7) .
In attempting to ascertain various impacts on labor market outcomes using categories such as gender, race, ethnicity, and physical ability, a void exists with respect to sexual orientation. Whereas heterosexism and homophobia can explain some of the reasons for the void, the inability to collect data randomly about homosexuals' experiences in the labor market nullifies the basic tenet of all scientific research-random samples. A unique approach is presented which looks at income data for nonrelatives of the same sex, ages 45 to 64, living together in Canada, as a first attempt at comparing same-sex and opposite-sex genders, and is used to demonstrate the contribution of recognizing sexual orientation to economic questions. Other examples based on well-known debates about female labor participation and gender wage gaps are presented to evaluate the usefulness of studying economics recognizing sexual orientation. The need for such study is acknowledged as a measure of the inclusiveness of the economics discipline.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002John J. Piderit International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1684-1698.
In his economic writings John Paul II asserts the importance of placing the human person at the center of deliberations concerning the economy. Neoclassical economists show that free trade enhances the efficiency of society. However, a byproduct of free trade is greater competition, as countries and firms adjust to the introduction of new products and processes of production, made possible through technological innovation. Neoclassical economists assume that workers will move to where new jobs develop. In many cases, however, this means that they impose burdens on their family and become more distant from friends. Each human person establishes bonds with other persons; through such family bonds of friendship a person becomes more human. This essay explores the tension between greater productive efficiency and a desire to maintain and enhance friendships. Never merely objective analysts, neoclassical economists have strong convictions concerning dynamic efficiency, while consumers have convictions about friendship. These two sets of convictions have to be reconciled. In order for policy makers to assess the true costs of free trade, mobility measures must be developed, and the neoclassical model must be modified to incorporate geographical stability as a significant factor for consumers.
Establishing the Priority of Labor [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002G.Paul Peterson, James A. Buss International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1699-1710(12) .
Pope John Paul II and the social teachings of the Catholic Church emphasize that labor should not be treated as an instrument in the production process. Rather justice requires that labor be given priority over capital. The reasons for this priority are explained. Several labor market conditions are examined to show that generally the priority of labor over capital does not exist. These conditions include unemployment, unjust wages, poverty, suppression of union activities, lack of participatory management, and discrimination against women and foreign workers. The works of Pope John Paul II are examined to discern the causes of these injustices and possible remedies for them. The roles played by the indirect employer, structures of evil, the ownership of economic resources, as well as the error of economism are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Bertil Holmlund Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 113-141.
A hallmark of modern labor economics is the close interplay between the development of theory, data sources and econometric testing. The evolution of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance provides a good illustration. New theoretical approaches, in particular job-search theory, have inspired a large amount of empirical research, some of it methodologically innovative and most of it highly relevant for economic policy. The paper presents a broad survey and an assessment of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance as it has evolved since the 1970s.
Gross Job Flows in Russian Industry Before and After Reforms: Has Destruction Become More Creative? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002J. David Brown, John S. Earle Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 96-133.
This paper uses 1985-1999 manufacturing census data for old Russian enterprises to calculate the magnitude and productivity effects of gross job flow rates before and after reforms. Job creation was low throughout the period in this sector, but increased slightly during the transition, while job destruction rose markedly. Heterogeneity in firm employment change also increased significantly. Intra- and inter-sectoral job reallocation had no effect on aggregate labor productivity during the socialist period, while they have made a strong positive contribution during the transition. Privatization and product market competition have not led to greater job destruction overall, but rather have helped to focus the destruction in the firms with the lowest productivity.
The Great Human Capital Reallocation: A Study of Occupational Mobility in Transitional Russia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Klara S. Sabirianova Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 191-217.
This paper employs the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a nationwide panel, to inquire into the magnitude, determinants, and consequences of occupational mobility in Russia from 1985 to 1998. We show that the restructuring process increases the rate of occupational reallocation. Structural changes account for a substantial part of the increase in gross occupational flows. A model built in the paper outlines the major explanatory factors of increased mobility during transition. The empirical analysis demonstrates that the destruction of existing jobs and occupations and the creation of new opportunities are important explanations for increased occupational mobility in transitional Russia. The econometric results also indicate that the local outside opportunities and the scale of structural change largely determine the probability of occupational switching.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Jozef Konings, Hartmut Lehmann Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 134-159.
Using a unique enterprise-level data set, which covers the regions Moscow City, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoyarsk and Chuvashia and the three sectors manufacturing and mining, construction and trade and distribution, we estimate Russian labour demand equations for the year 1997. The most important conclusion that can be drawn is that labour demand is inelastic in international perspective if we estimate a labour demand equation for all regions and all sectors combined. So, Russian MLEs well into the transition still exhibit peculiar behaviour as far as wage employment trade-offs are concerned. We try to relate this inelastic labour demand to basic neoclassical theory by testing Marshalls rules of derived demand. Our results show that testing these rules seems a promising avenue for establishing some of the driving forces, which are behind labour demand in Russia.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Barbara Petrongolo Journal of Labor Economics. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 716-41.
The assumption of constant returns in the matching function, embodied in most bilateral search models, is crucial to ensure the uniqueness of the unemployment rate along a steady-state growth path. This article explores the empirical viability of this assumption by estimating individual reemployment probabilities on a sample of unemployment entrants. I apply hazard models to survey data on both completed and uncompleted unemployment durations. The hypothesis of constant returns to matching is not rejected, on the basis of the evidence that the job-finding hazard depends only on local labor market tightness and is independent of its size.
Market Forces and Sex Discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth R. Troske Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 2 . P. 353-380.
The authors report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, they use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Their strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. The authors also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. There was found little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce.
An Analysis of Occupational Change and Departures from the Labor Force: Evidence of the Reasons Teacher Quit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Todd R. Stinebrickner Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 1. P. 192-216.
This article deals with two problems: the timing of exits from the teaching profession and the reasons for these exits. Approximately 67 % of exiting female teachers leave the work force altogether. The presence of a newborn child is the single most important determinant of exits for females. The paper discusses why studies of quit behavior that simply include a person's total number of children may fail to capture the true importance of fertility behavior on a female's quit decision. It is also examined in this paper the return rates of departing teachers and compares the exit behavior of teachers to that of nonteachers.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lisa M. Powell Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 106-128.
This paper examines the impact of childcare prices and wage rates on the joint employment and childcare mode (center, sitter, relative, and husband) choice decisions of married mothers by estimating both a mixed logit and universal logit choice model. Data are drawn from the 1988 Canadian National Child Care Survey and the 1988 Labour Market Activity Survey. The estimation results show that wages have a positive impact on the probability of choosing any of the working states and that childcare prices for center, sitter, and relative care reduce the probability of working and using each respective mode of care. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the wage elasticity for employment is fairly robust across model specifications, while the own-price elasticity of childcare is sensitive to model specification, differing identifying assumptions in the estimation of childcare price equations, and sample selection. The simulation results show that differences exist in the degree to which government subsidies in the form of wage subsidies, targeted childcare subsidies, or unconditional childcare subsidies, impact on labor supply decisions and decisions to substitute across different modes of care by those mothers already in the labor market.
Workers' Heterogeneity and Risk Aversion : a Segmentation Model of the Russian Labour Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Irena Grosfeld, Claudia Senik-Leygonie, Thierry Verdier Journal of Comparative Economics. 2001. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 230-256.
This paper proposes an explanation of the puzzling coexistence of elements of inertia and dynamism on the Russian labour market. In a context of high uncertainty, risk averse and heterogeneous workers face a trade-off between wages and an insurance against risk o ered by the firm. The firm proposes a contract which includes a low monetary wage and the access to social services. Workers choose to accept the contract or to leave the firm. Their choice gives rise to an ex post segmentation : the most productive workers leave the firm and concentrate in the most productive firms; the less adapted workers remain in their initial firm where they accept to receive lower wages as a price for security. In this framework, wage arrears can be viewed as an element of an implicit contract between firms and less productive workers. We test the relevance of the model using a panel dataset containing 9233 Russian firms for 1993 - 1998 as well as a sub-sample for which we have information on firms' wage arrears.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Maria Melkersson
Return to employment, after a period of unemployment, is analyzed for a large sample of Swedish occupationally disabled workers. A piece-wise constant model is used, extended to allow for Gamma heterogeneity. Three competing exits from unemployment are accounted for; regular employment, sheltered/subsidized employment and withdrawal from the labor force. The model is also generalized by accounting for differing search behavior within the population. The hazard rate is constant or slightly increasing over time, for exit to some kind of employment. However, for exit from unemployment by leaving the labor force, the hazard shows quite strong positive duration dependence. Men tend to be more probable to leave unemployment for regular employment, and less probable than women to leave the labor force. The probability of finding regular employment is smallest for workers with psychological disabilities, while high-school or university education as well as previous professional experience increases the hazard rate for regular employment. The heterogeneity due to differing search behavior appears to be at least as important as the Gamma heterogeneity. The estimated probabilities of no search for one particular exit varies, across exits and subsamples, between 0.0 and 0.4.
The Interaction Between Labor Market Policy and Monetary Policy: An Analysis of Time Inconsistency Problems. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Еsa Johansson
This paper studies the interaction between time inconsistency problems in labor market policy and monetary policy. When both policies are discretionary, there is a positive inflation bias, whereas the bias in labor market programs may be either positive or negative. A commitment of labor market programs to zero increases inflation, as compared to the case when both labor market policy and monetary policy are discretionary. Delegation of labor market policy to a liberal labor market board may improve the discretionary outcome, even if labor market programs crowd out regular employment. A conservative central bank always reduces the social loss, even when monetary policy interacts with labor market policy.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lars Calmfors, Anders Forslund, Maria Hemstrom
The Swedish experiences of the 1990s provide a unique example of how large-scale active labour market programmes (ALMPs) have been used as a means to fight high unemployment. This paper discusses the mechanisms through which ALMPs affect (un)employment and surveys the empirical studies of the effects of ALMPs in Sweden. The main conclusions are: (i) there is hardly any evidence for a positive effect on matching efficiency; (ii) there are some indications of positive effects on labour force participation; (iii) subsidised employment seems to cause displacement of regular employment, whereas this appears not to be the case for labour market training; (iv) it is unclear whether or not ALMPs raise aggregate wage pressure in the economy; (v) in the 1990s, training programmes seem not to have enhanced the employment probabilities of participants, whereas some forms of subsidised employment seem to have had such effects; and (vi) youth programmes seem to have caused substantial displacement effects at the same time as the gains for participants appear uncertain. On the whole, ALMPs have probably reduced open unemployment, but also reduced regular employment. The overall policy conclusion is that ALMPs of the scale used in Sweden in the 1990s are not an efficient means of employment policy. To be effective, ALMPs should be used on a smaller scale. There should be a greater emphasis on holding down long-term unemployment in general and a smaller emphasis on youth programmes. ALMPs should not be used as a means to renew unemployment benefit eligibility.