Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63941
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Hao Ma Management Decisions. 1999. Vol. 37. No. 3. P. 259-266.
Competitive advantage arises from the differential among firms along any dimension of firm attributes and characteristics that allows one firm to better create customer value than do others. Generic sources of competitive advantage include ownership of assets or position; access to distribution and supply, as well as proficiency knowledge, competence, and capability in business operation. To achieve and sustain competitive advantage, a firm needs to creatively and proactively exploit the three generic sources, preempt rivals' attempt at these sources, and/or pursue any combination of proactive and preemptive efforts. Juxtaposing creation and preemption as well as ownership-based, accessbased, and proficiency-based sources, this article advances an integrative framework that helps management practitioners systematically analyze the nature and cause of competitive advantage.
Competitiveness in the new economy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Petri Rouvinen ETLA. 1970. No. 768.
This paper devises an e-competitiveness index attempting to measure the ability of a nation to exploit information and communication technology (ICT) to the fullest. Results of the analysis show that Finland is highly specialized in ICT provision, it has good premises to exploit ICT to the fullest, but that it is not amongst the leading users of ICT.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Timothy J. Brailsford, Barry R. Oliver, Sandra L. H. Pua
Agency theory embeds the influential relationship that exist between managers and shareholders of firms. This relationship has the potential to influence decision-making in the firm which in turn has potential impacts on firm characteristics such as firm value. Prior evidence has demonstrated an association between ownership structure and firm value. This paper extends the literature by proposing a further link between ownership structure and capital structure. Using an agency framework we argue that the distribution of equity ownership among corporate managers and external blockholders has a significant relationship with leverage. The paper tests four hypotheses that explore various aspects of this relationship. The empirical results provide support for a positive relationship between external blockholders and leverage, a curvilinear relationship between the level of managerial share ownership and leverage and finally, the results suggest that the relationship between external block ownership and leverage varies across the level of managerial share ownership. These results parallel and are consistent with the active monitoring hypothesis, convergence-of-interests and the entrenchment hypotheses which have been proposed in a different context.
Adaptive Learning Routines and Time in Strategic Decision-Making Processes in Emerging Markets [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Li-Choy Chong, Klaus Kukovetz
This paper attempts to map out the learning routines of organizations in adapting their decision-making processes to the emerging market environment of China. The ability to increase the speed and quality of learning through conscious exploitation of learning routines would bring about better performance faster and hence would be of strategic importance to the firm. The findings have shown that this can be achieved through improving the efficiency of learning routines, e.g. through intentional learning, the employment of experienced decision-making agents, or better timing of actions and interventions. Strategic time concepts are found to be extremely relevant.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Alejandro Escriba-Esteve, Martina Menguzzato-Boulard
Some researchers have pointed out that the mere formation of an alliance is not sufficient guarantee for the achievement of its potential benefits. During its implementation, the behaviour of the companies will play a key role for the appropriate development of the relationship. Through a case study methodology of research, the authors analyse why in some agreements a more cooperative relationship is reached among the partners than in others. The authors tried to advance in the knowledge about the determinant factors of the partners behaviour in both international and domestic strategic alliances. A theoretical model related to the determinant factors of the cooperative behaviour is the major result of this paper.
Stata [компьютерная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Stata is an environment for manipulating and analyzing data using statistical and graphical methods. Stata is an integrated package not a collection of separate modules. You can intersperse data management, statistical, and graphical commands. Stata, an integrated statistical package for Windows, Macintosh, and Unix, is designed for research professionals and is distributed in 124 countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Will Mitchell, Pierre Dussauge, Bernard Garrett
This study addresses two main questions: First, what types of alliances do firms tend to create when combining different kinds of resources? Second, what governance mechanisms do firms set up to coordinate and protect resources when they use them for different alliances? The authors examine 227 alliances between competitors in Asia, North America, and Europe. We first identify two types of alliances: scale alliances in which the partner firms contribute similar resources, and link alliances in which the partners contribute complementary resources. As a resoult it was founded that firms contributing R&D and production resources tend to form scale alliances, while firms contributing marketing resources tend to enter into link alliances. The authors also conclude that firms are more likely to choose stronger protection mechanisms for link alliances, which create greater appropriation risks, while they tend to seek higher levels of coordination in scale alliances.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Arnaldo Camuffo
The paper discusses the relationship between globalization and, modularization and outsourcing in the auto industry. It maintains that modularity is a broad concept, applicable and applied to product design, manufacturing and organization and that modularization is a strategy aimed at reducing the complexity stemming from globalization of products, markets and production. However, modularity has only recently moved its first steps in auto design and manufacturing and is a vaguely defined and ambiguously used concept in the auto industry. The paper suggests that, in the auto industry, economic and institutional factors related to globalization represent key drivers of modularization as much as technology. Besides, as the auto industry globalize, modularization and outsourcing, though remaining conceptually distinct, tend to become, in practice, increasingly inseparable.
Generating Cooperative Behavior Between The Unacquainted: A Case Study Of The Renault/Nissan Alliance Formation Process [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Pierre-Yves Gomez, Harry Korine, Olivier Masclef
How can unacquainted organizations generate cooperative behavior? The researchers address this question in a case study of the process that leads to a strategic alliance between French and Japanese auto-makers Renault and Nissan - two organizations with no prior basis for a core of cooperative behavior to exist. Analyzed in the spirit of theory development, the case study turns on inter-individual processes and time. The data lead us to a gift-theoretical interpretation. Building upon the fundamental anthropological idea of gift / contra-gift (Mauss, 1925/1990) to describe cooperative behaviors between unacquainted individuals, researchers articulate how different types of gifts and the pace of reciprocal giving are employed to generate cooperative behavior over time. Critically for practical relevance and theoretical scope, the gift-theoretical approach developed does not impose linearity: the generation of cooperative behavior can be routinized, escalated, or even reversed. To the literature on cooperation in inter-organizational relationships, researchers offer an interpretative framework for further theoretical elaboration and empirical testing. To the literature on strategic alliances, researchers present the groundwork for bringing the "beginning back in" to the study of how partnerships evolve.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Joerg Funder
The business model construct as a unifying unit of analysis, that captures the value creation arising from multiple sources has been proposed by several scholars as a fruitful base for research but the question how to change business models in order to achieve that value has not been answered. It is proposed, that the organizations business model is the essential logic for combining resources and capabilities for consistently achieving its principle objectives and to perform the core activities of the organization. Furthermore it is proposed, that it is this configuration of resources and capabilities, which enable a firm to deliver unique value and consequently confer a competitive advantage. The dynamic reconfiguration and integration of resources and capabilities is referred to as a business model change. This paper is focused on offering provable propositions on the modification of capabilities concerning their influence for a business model change, and follows the two main assumptions of entrepreurship research: entrepreneurship is residing in Individuals versus entrepreneurship is enabled by a specific context.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Sophia Philippidou, Klas Eric Soderquist, Gregory P. Prastacos
Building on coevolution theory and existing knowledge about strategic and organizational change, this paper develops a conceptual framework for studying change in organizations as coevolution. The focus is on how organizations create constructed environmental conditions, hence forming the context for themselves and other organizations and their environment. The paper illustrates this problematic by focusing on the interplay between public and private organizations. A set of propositions and an integrated framework laying the ground for future empirical research are developed.
Sources Of Competitive Advantage Of The Business Firms In The Slovenian Transforming Economy: Could We Explain Them By Existing Theories [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Danijel Pucko
The paper deals with the issues of what sources of competitive advantage have been activated most frequently in the Slovenian business firms in the last years and how well they can be explained by the existing theories. The research is based on the empirical survey that was carried out in the period from November 2000 to March 2001 in the Slovenian (mostly) medium and large business firms. The responses for the questionnaire that had been prepared were collected in randomly chosen 77 business firms (the banking sector was excluded).
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Rita D. Medina-Muсoz, Diego R. Medina-Muсoz
The establishment of cooperative relationships with other organizations is becoming something crucial to businesses, in a way that strategic alliances or interorganizational relationships (IR) constitute an important topic for research in management literature. This study analyzes interorganizational control (IC), which represents one of the processes within IR that is receiving greater attention in the literature, from a knowledge-based perspective. Besides describing its concept and dimensions, the effect of the knowledge to be transferred in the context of IR on IC is also assessed. To be specific, there is an analysis of the influence of the characteristics of the knowledge and the extent of assimilation of knowledge by the other partners on the extent of control and control types and mechanisms. Empirical evidence is provided by our study of the relationship between tour operators from Germany and the United Kingdom and the accommodation companies, which revolves around the control exercised by the tour operators over the accommodation companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Cristina Quintana Garcia, Carlos A. Benavides Velasco
In this paper, first of all, a review of theoretical perspectives of co-opetition is made, and then, the authors identify alternative types of strategic behavior from the combination of competitive and cooperative attitudes. The aim of presented empirical study was to analyze correlation between different strategic behavior and performance. Particularly, the hypothesis was contrasted in the biotechnology industry.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Giovanni Battista Dagnino, Giovanna Padula
The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, by proposing a first definition of coopetiton, it aims to move away from the mere recognition of the oversimplified conventional conception to a deeper understanding of the nature of coopetition. By suggesting that coopetition is a matter of incomplete interest (and goal) congruence concerning firms interdependence, the authors stress that coopetition does not simply emerge from coupling competition and cooperation issues, but rather it implies that cooperation and competition merge together to form a new kind of strategic interdependence between firms, giving rise to a coopetitive system of value creation. Second, the researchers advance a typology of coopetition based on the differing explanatory variables of this incomplete interest (and goal) congruence. Third, with the support of a number of coopetition microcases, especially referring to firms operating in the automobile industry, the contribution and the potential of coopetition strategy to the advancement of both strategic management, organization theory and managerial practice was clarified.
Entrepreneurship: Business Venturing. Exploring The Effects Of Corporate Governance Mechanisms [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Maria Jose Pinillos Costa, Luisa E. Reyes Recio, Isabel Soriano Pinar
This paper attempts to analyze the association between corporate governance - measured by the exercise of control by larger shareholders and the board of directors- and corporate entrepreneurship for businesses quoted on the Madrid Stock-Exchange. Under the hypothesis of management opportunist behavior and being consistent with agency theory, this paper contrasts the existence of a greater corporate entrepreneurship when an effective control over the management does not exist, and the executives are significant shareholders. Thus, the authors examine two sources of influence on managerial support for corporate entrepreneurship: the firms ownership structure and its governance system. Their objective was to understand how firm characteristics -in terms firm corporate governance attributes- influences the decisions about entering in new businesses or markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Morten Huse, Hans Landstrom
Boards of directors and corporate governance debates have been highly focused in the business press and even in research, but few universities offer courses on these topics. In this paper a research and teaching model is introduced, and we will show some examples of how such courses may be designed and how they relate to research. Examples are given for executive courses, undergraduate courses and graduate courses. The paper concludes by presenting the second international doctoral course on governance in SMEs.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Thomas Mannarelli
Archival interviews with 76 popular musicians were content-analyzed for statements about motivation, individuation and attributions of success and failure. Creativity was judged separately by consensual ratings from experts. Results show that although no differences were found in expressions of intrinsic motivation, creative musicians were less motivated to receive extrinsic rewards than uncreative musicians. Creative musicians were also more likely to individuate their products from the products of their peers, but were no more likely to personally individuate themselves. Finally, creative musicians were more likely to display positive illusion tendencies, attributing successes internally and failures to external causes.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Frank Brueck, Astrid Kainzbauer
When European managers of differing cultural backgrounds meet, they often have considerable difficulties when it comes to understanding one another. These cultural dissimilarities have a decidedly negative influence on their ability to collaborate.. The factor Culture can be especially disturbing when the acting persons are not aware of their cultural dissimilarities. Since the differences between Europeans are not as obvious as between Japanese and German businessmen, for example, people tend to neglect the influence of Culture in business relations in Europe. One innovative way of researching cultural differences is the Cultural Standard Method. It is based on a qualitative research approach and provides a tool for identifying cultural differences on a more subtle level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural standards method as a tool for the comparison of European business cultures and to give examples of recent research results.
Dependency Without Patronage: What Network Organization Can Learn from Managerial Network Dynamics in a Matrix Organization [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Andrej Rus
This paper aims to explain the dynamics of interpersonal relationships in a matrix organization in order to offer clues for understanding the roadblocks in building a modern network organization. The emphasis on interpersonal dynamics is not new after all it was a central concern of human relations school but systematic research has been scarce. With the advances in social network analysis pioneered by Burt (1982) it became possible to take a fresh view on interpersonal dynamics in organizations.