Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63941
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Lucio Biggiero, Domenico Laise
Organizational decisions are characterized by a multiplicity of choice criteria. This property, which in reality affects virtually all human behaviors, prevents use of the standard (neoclassical) theory of decisions based on the maximization of a single criterion. Rather, the outranking methods developed by the French school of operational research make it possible to deal with multicriterial choices and avoid the defects of the naive method. This paper develops a paradigmatic example in order to show the essential effects of the outranking methods and their compatibility with the theory of limited rationality and satisfactory choices.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Dominique Jolly
The paper distinguishes between two types of inter-firm alliances: endogamy and exogamy. Endogamy occurs when partners share related profiles. On the opposite, exogamy appears when allies exhibit unrelated profiles. It is suggested that endogamy serves for accumulating similar resources and gaining scale effects while exogamy allows the combination of differentiated competences and the achievement of symbiotic effects. Two different cases are employed to infer practical recommendations regarding how these different types of partnerships should be managed.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Adrian Atilio Caldart, Joan Enric Ricart
During the last years a debate has raged within the field of Strategic Management between a rational view (IO, Positioning School, Strategic Planning, Cybernetics) and a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) view (Emergent strategies,complexity theory, chaos theory) of the field. This paper attempts to shed some light around an issue which must be clarified for the better development of such debate. Being the CAS view a response to the new realities of environmental turbulence, it was discussed which are the behavioral sources of such turbulence in order to clarify if such phenomena is a qualitatively new reality of business environments, or simply a contingent but circumstantial feature affecting many industries. For this purpose, the authors introduced and applied a theoretical model that conceives the strategy of the firm, as a dialectic process in a situation of conflict.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Dee Brereton, Oswald Jones
The topic of entrepreneurship has been the subject of a considerable amount of academic interest over the last twenty years. Despite a vast amount of published work there have been very few attempts to study the entrepreneurial process. In other words, we know little of the what happens as an entrepreneur moves from idea to the objective reality of a fully functioning business. A more recent phenomenon has been the shift from a focus on entrepreneurial traits to the study of entrepreneurial networks. This is recognition that even the most individualistic of entrepreneurs rely heavily on their social relationships during the creation of a new business. These two factors, networks and the entrepreneurial process, are brought together in this paper which utilises a first-hand account of activities associated with business startups. The paper also examines the way in which MBA education provides useful skills to even the most experienced entrepreneur.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Erik Lerdahl
This article presents a new method for the development of product ideas, where the initial focus for development is not product ideas, but fantasy worlds. Based on a mental visualization session groups develop fantasy worlds through writing stories in circles. Some of these stories are acted out in scenario play. Phrases from these stories are then used as basis for idea development. This method gives interesting ideas that would be hard to come up with through traditional brainstorming. It helps to get a broader and deeper understanding of the design task and it strongly influences the team spirit and atmosphere. The method is presented through a case with industrial design students in Oslo, where the task was to develop new mouth hygiene products for the Norwegian company Jordan.
Evaluating Firm Performance: Why Firms Need To Reengineer Their Performance Measurement Systems [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Rickie Moore, E.M. Lyon
This paper argues that executives and managers need to reevaluate and to reengineer their performance measurement system to make it more pertinent so that it would serve as an effective trigger as well as a critical piloting and control mechanism for effecting strategic management intervention.
Complementarity in the Innovation Strategy: Internal R&D, External Technology Acquisition, and Cooperation in R&D [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Bruno Cassiman, Reinhilde Veugelers
Successful innovation depends on the development and integration of new knowledge in the innovation process. In order to successfully innovate, the firm will combine different innovation activities. In addition to doing own research and development, firms typically are engaged in the acquisition of knowledge on the technology market and cooperate actively in R&D with other firms and research organizations. In this paper the authors provide evidence on complementarity between different innovation activities. Using data from the Community Innovation Survey on Belgian manufacturing firms, the authors show that firms that are only engaged in a single innovation strategy, either internal R&D activities or sourcing technology externally, introduced fewer new or substantially improved products compared to firms which combine internal and external sourcing. This result is consistent with complementarity between own R&D and external technology sourcing activities. Furthermore, the authors show that the different innovation activities are strongly positively correlated and identify common drivers, resulting in the perceived complementarity between these innovation activities. An important finding is that a capacity to strategically protect intellectual property and a more basic R&D base which may serve as an absorptive capacity, are important common drivers for the different innovation activities.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Morten Huse, Jonas Gabrielsson
Considerable attention has been directed towards corporate governance issues in recent years. There are however various limitations in the international mainstream research on boards of directors. Few studies address research questions beyond investigating the relationship between board composition and company performance. Most research is moreover based on empirical evidence from large publicly held US corporations. This paper summarises the accumulated knowledge from 100 student reports on boards of directors in Scandinavia. The contributions of the reports show the need to explore the influence of various contingencies, and also to take various stakeholder perspectives into account when researching corporate governance and boards of directors. The reports also show the need to go beyond counting only numbers of directors to gain insight into board working structures and relationships between directors and managers. Several advantages compared to the US mainstream research tradition can in this connection be found in Scandinavian research about boards of directors.
International Journal of Forecasting [интернет ресурс]
The International Journal of Forecasting is the leading journal in its field. It is the official publication of the International Institute of Forecasters (IIF) and shares its aims and scope. More information about
Time Series [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002Guido M. Kuersteiner
The course is an introduction to univariate and multivariate time series models. It starts by introducing basic concepts and progresses to more complicated models. The course intends to meet two goals. It provides tools for empirical work with time series data and is an introduction into the theoretical foundation of time series models.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Lars Behrenz Journal of Applied Economics. 2001. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 255-278.
In the literature of labor economics we find many examples of studies analyzing job seekers search behavior, but few examples of the corresponding analysis of the recruitment behavior of employers. This paper gives a picture of the recruitment behavior of Swedish employers. The analysis is based on about 800 telephone interviews with employers regarding the last person they had hired. This paper relates the lemons problem in Akerlof with the Spence signaling model, and then it proceeds to relate indices and signals to the hiring behavior of employers. Employers mainly recruit personnel in order to expand a certain activity of their firm. On an average the total recruitment process takes about a month. In first round employers mainly look for job seekers with good education and experience. During the job interview the employer search for persons with professional knowledge, personal engagement and social competence
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Cara L. Brown Feminist Economics. 1998. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 89-95(7) .
In attempting to ascertain various impacts on labor market outcomes using categories such as gender, race, ethnicity, and physical ability, a void exists with respect to sexual orientation. Whereas heterosexism and homophobia can explain some of the reasons for the void, the inability to collect data randomly about homosexuals' experiences in the labor market nullifies the basic tenet of all scientific research-random samples. A unique approach is presented which looks at income data for nonrelatives of the same sex, ages 45 to 64, living together in Canada, as a first attempt at comparing same-sex and opposite-sex genders, and is used to demonstrate the contribution of recognizing sexual orientation to economic questions. Other examples based on well-known debates about female labor participation and gender wage gaps are presented to evaluate the usefulness of studying economics recognizing sexual orientation. The need for such study is acknowledged as a measure of the inclusiveness of the economics discipline.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002John J. Piderit International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1684-1698.
In his economic writings John Paul II asserts the importance of placing the human person at the center of deliberations concerning the economy. Neoclassical economists show that free trade enhances the efficiency of society. However, a byproduct of free trade is greater competition, as countries and firms adjust to the introduction of new products and processes of production, made possible through technological innovation. Neoclassical economists assume that workers will move to where new jobs develop. In many cases, however, this means that they impose burdens on their family and become more distant from friends. Each human person establishes bonds with other persons; through such family bonds of friendship a person becomes more human. This essay explores the tension between greater productive efficiency and a desire to maintain and enhance friendships. Never merely objective analysts, neoclassical economists have strong convictions concerning dynamic efficiency, while consumers have convictions about friendship. These two sets of convictions have to be reconciled. In order for policy makers to assess the true costs of free trade, mobility measures must be developed, and the neoclassical model must be modified to incorporate geographical stability as a significant factor for consumers.
Establishing the Priority of Labor [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002G.Paul Peterson, James A. Buss International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1699-1710(12) .
Pope John Paul II and the social teachings of the Catholic Church emphasize that labor should not be treated as an instrument in the production process. Rather justice requires that labor be given priority over capital. The reasons for this priority are explained. Several labor market conditions are examined to show that generally the priority of labor over capital does not exist. These conditions include unemployment, unjust wages, poverty, suppression of union activities, lack of participatory management, and discrimination against women and foreign workers. The works of Pope John Paul II are examined to discern the causes of these injustices and possible remedies for them. The roles played by the indirect employer, structures of evil, the ownership of economic resources, as well as the error of economism are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Bertil Holmlund Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 113-141.
A hallmark of modern labor economics is the close interplay between the development of theory, data sources and econometric testing. The evolution of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance provides a good illustration. New theoretical approaches, in particular job-search theory, have inspired a large amount of empirical research, some of it methodologically innovative and most of it highly relevant for economic policy. The paper presents a broad survey and an assessment of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance as it has evolved since the 1970s.
Gross Job Flows in Russian Industry Before and After Reforms: Has Destruction Become More Creative? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002J. David Brown, John S. Earle Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 96-133.
This paper uses 1985-1999 manufacturing census data for old Russian enterprises to calculate the magnitude and productivity effects of gross job flow rates before and after reforms. Job creation was low throughout the period in this sector, but increased slightly during the transition, while job destruction rose markedly. Heterogeneity in firm employment change also increased significantly. Intra- and inter-sectoral job reallocation had no effect on aggregate labor productivity during the socialist period, while they have made a strong positive contribution during the transition. Privatization and product market competition have not led to greater job destruction overall, but rather have helped to focus the destruction in the firms with the lowest productivity.
The Great Human Capital Reallocation: A Study of Occupational Mobility in Transitional Russia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Klara S. Sabirianova Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 191-217.
This paper employs the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a nationwide panel, to inquire into the magnitude, determinants, and consequences of occupational mobility in Russia from 1985 to 1998. We show that the restructuring process increases the rate of occupational reallocation. Structural changes account for a substantial part of the increase in gross occupational flows. A model built in the paper outlines the major explanatory factors of increased mobility during transition. The empirical analysis demonstrates that the destruction of existing jobs and occupations and the creation of new opportunities are important explanations for increased occupational mobility in transitional Russia. The econometric results also indicate that the local outside opportunities and the scale of structural change largely determine the probability of occupational switching.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Jozef Konings, Hartmut Lehmann Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 134-159.
Using a unique enterprise-level data set, which covers the regions Moscow City, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoyarsk and Chuvashia and the three sectors manufacturing and mining, construction and trade and distribution, we estimate Russian labour demand equations for the year 1997. The most important conclusion that can be drawn is that labour demand is inelastic in international perspective if we estimate a labour demand equation for all regions and all sectors combined. So, Russian MLEs well into the transition still exhibit peculiar behaviour as far as wage employment trade-offs are concerned. We try to relate this inelastic labour demand to basic neoclassical theory by testing Marshalls rules of derived demand. Our results show that testing these rules seems a promising avenue for establishing some of the driving forces, which are behind labour demand in Russia.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Barbara Petrongolo Journal of Labor Economics. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 716-41.
The assumption of constant returns in the matching function, embodied in most bilateral search models, is crucial to ensure the uniqueness of the unemployment rate along a steady-state growth path. This article explores the empirical viability of this assumption by estimating individual reemployment probabilities on a sample of unemployment entrants. I apply hazard models to survey data on both completed and uncompleted unemployment durations. The hypothesis of constant returns to matching is not rejected, on the basis of the evidence that the job-finding hazard depends only on local labor market tightness and is independent of its size.
Market Forces and Sex Discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth R. Troske Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 2 . P. 353-380.
The authors report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, they use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Their strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. The authors also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. There was found little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce.