Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 63924
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mike W. Peng, Stanislav V. Shekshia Academy of Management Executive. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 95-110.
Entrepreneurship has been flourishing in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent state of the former Soviet Union, and East Asia. Entrepreneurs in these countries are characterized by their sheer energy, relentless strategies, and sometimes controversial practices. How can entrepreneurs rise to crate wealth in environmental traditionally hostile to entrepreneurial activity? What can be learned from such an experience? Focusing on these 2 key questions, this article draws on research from a broad range of transition economies to identify 3 major entrepreneurial strategies of prospecting, networking, and boundary blurring. It also delineates important lessons for entrepreneurs active in transition economies and foreign entrants interested in these emerging markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, Felix Rioja, Samuel Skogstad American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 501-517.
Emerging economies in crisis typically request assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After evaluating the situation, the IMF makes a loan available to the country, conditional on certain policy reforms. Governments usually resist many of these measures and negotiation ensues. This paper analyzes the most contentious measures of IMF conditionally in the context of Russia after the August 1998 crisis. The most discussed measures include the budget deficit structural reforms, and exchange rate policy. The analysis suggests that to some extent the disagreement arose because the IMF is focused on changing steady states somewhat ignoring the transition path, while the Russian government is preoccupied with transitional dynamics without a clearly defined steady state concept.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Richard P. Castanias American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 471-500.
Traditionally, economists have viewed social relations as friction or impediments to exchange and have excluded social relations from their analyses by assuming autonomous actors. Recently, however, a number of scholars - economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and other social scientists - have begun to discuss the numerous ways in which social arrangements both prompt and channel economic activity. Rational choice theory, social capital and network analysis, and agency and game theory, are among those approaches that consider the effects of social relations on economic action. In this paper, that discussion is extended by arguing that social relations can function as collateral or assurance that an economic transaction will proceed as agreed by the parties involved. Recent microeconomic theories are reviewed and how They might be developed following this observation, which is derived from sociological and anthropological studies of economic action and organizations.
Is there an underclass in Britain? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Buckingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 49-75.
The underclass is defined and the predictions are tested of three competing theories in the underclass debate. Using the National Child Development Study for the analysis it is found that an underclass suffering from a lack of qualifications, low cognitive ability and chronic joblessness exists. The validity of making a distinction between the working class and an underclass has often been questioned both because of the dubious history of such a distinction and because it is not believed that such a distinction is empirically true. The results contradict this assertion by finding the underclass to be distinctive from the working class in terms of patterns of family formation, work commitment and political allegiance. The distinct attitudes of the underclass, when coupled with evidence of inter- and intra-generational stability of membership, provide early evidence that a new social class, the underclass, may now exist in Britain.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen, John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 1-27.
Saunders' (1996, 1997) recent work claiming that contemporary British society is to a large extent 'meritocratic' is criticized on conceptual and technical grounds. A reanalysis of the National Child Development Study data-set, used by Saunders, is presented. This reveals that while merit, defined in terms of ability and effort, does play a part in determining individuals' class destinations, the effect of class origins remains strong. Children of less advantaged origins need to show substantially more merit than children from more advantaged origins in order to gain similar class positions. These differences in findings to some extent arise from the correction of biases introduced by Saunders; but there are also features of his own results, consistent with those reported in the reanalysis, which he appears to not fully have appreciated.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Ingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 76-96.
A conception of money as a neutral veil masking a real economy was adopted by economic theory after the Methodenstreit, and is also to be found, in a different form, in Marxian political economy. Both derive from an erroneous functionalist and anachronistic commodity theory of money which, as Post-Keynesian economists argue, cannot explain the distinctive form of capitalist credit-money. Orthodox economic theory and classic Marxism have tacitly informed and flawed historical sociology's understanding of money's role in capitalist development. Mann (1986) and Runciman (1989), for example, consider the economy exclusively in terms of the social relations of production and imply that money is epiphenomenal and is to be explained as a response to the needs of the real economy. They do not recognize the structural specificity of capitalist money and banking nor its importance. An alternative account of the autonomous historical conditions of existence of the specifically capitalist form of bank and state credit-money and its role in capitalist development is outlined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Andreas Buss British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 317-329.
Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1958), studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. It is suggested the Weber's subsequent essays on The Economic Ethics of World Religions (1958, 1959) are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. The concept of causal adequacy and the related concept of objective possibility are developed on hte basis of the work of v. Kries on who Weber heavily relied. This concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the spirit of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Iganski, Geoff Payne British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 195-215.
The consequences of major changes in employment, due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of the service sector, have not been well-documented, nor theorized, in the sociology of ethnic relations, even in recent studies. By adapting data from the Labour Force Survey and the Census, the gap is addressed with a detailed account of 3 main minority ethnic groups, and a separate analysis of male and female employment. It is demonstrated that, contrary to assumptions that members of the minority ethnic groups suffered most from de-industrialization, they actually did rather well, and in some cases did better than the majority population. These findings are reconceptualized as collective social mobility, as part of a review of a number of conceptual frameworks in the light of the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rod Bond, Peter Saunders British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 217-249.
Using data from the National Child Development Study, a complex path model is developed predicting the occupational grade achieved by 4,298 employed British males at age 33. Using various measures of class origins, parental support, qualifications, and individual ability and ambition, a linear structural equations model is developed which achieves a good fit to the data. The model demonstrates that individual ability is by far the strongest influence on occupational achievement, that motivation is also important, and that factors like class background and parental support, while significant, are relatively much weaker. It is concluded that occupational selection in Britain appears to take place on meritocratic principles.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James A. Beckford British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 671.
Critical responses to the application of Rational Choice theories to the study of religious phenomena tend to be polarized between outright denial that the theories have any relevance to religion and equally outspoken claims that the theories are the only hope for progress in the sociology of religion. Both of these extreme positions are avoided by raising a question, instead, about one of Rational Choice's central propositions about religion. This proposition holds that levels of religious vitality vary positively with the degree to which agencies of the state are prevented from regulating religious activity. The findings of recent research into prison chaplaincy in the UK and the US are used to test this claim. The main argument is that the existence of an established church has facilitated a higher level of religious activity, especially for minority faiths, in prisons in England and Wales than is possible in US prisons.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Gay British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 575-587.
In his highly regarded and influential Modernity and the Holocaust Zygmunt Bauman launched one of the most passionate and sustained critiques of bureaucracy rationality seen within social theory for some time. In so doing he drew heavily upon the work of Max Weber for support. The extent to which Weber really is the anti-bureaucratic ally Bauman claims him to be is examined. The main elements of Bauman's critique of bureaucratic rationality is outlined, drawing particular attention to its reliance upon a self-consciously Weberian theoretical lexicon. It is indicated that, despite his claims to be following in Weber's tracks, Bauman's conclusions regarding the moral vacuity of bureaucratic conduct are the very antithesis of Weber's own.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Manuel Castells British Journal of Sociology. . Vol. 51. No. 1. P. 5-24.
Some elements for a grounded theory of the network society are outlined. The network society is the social structure characteristic of the Information Age, as tentatively identified by empirical, cross-cultural investigation. It permeates most societies in the world, in various cultural and institutional manifestations, as the industrial society characterized the social structure both capitalism and statism for most of the twentieth century. Social structures are organized around relationships of production/consumption, power, and experience, whose spatio-temporal configurations constitute cultures. They are enacted, reproduced, and ultimately transformed by social actors, rooted in the social structure, yet freely engaging in conflictive social practices, with uupredictable outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wendy Bottero, Sarah Irwin British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 261-280.
This paper explores recent arguments about the marketization of female labor, in the context of a wider analysis of the role of concepts like 'the market' and 'individualization' in sociological accounts of change in employment relations. It will be argued that within sociology there has been a tendency for rapid, large-scale changes in employment relations to be characterized as the breakdown of social influences or structures and as the emergence of atomized, individuated market forces. In the most recent models, change in the nature of gendered positions within employment are presented in terms of a decline of social structuring and social constraint. These emergent accounts hold similarities to classical economics, and to Marx's and Weber's accounts of employment, which also characterized new forms of employment relations in terms of the emptying of their social content and their repl placement by market forms. An alternative, moral economy, perspective which foregrounds the continued significance of social relations in the structuring of employment and employment change is offered. The argument is developed through an analysis of gendered patterns of employment and change in family form.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Christel Lane British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 207-234.
A small number of German multinational corporations are examined in their domestic and international context. More particularly, the work focuses on whether and how their emergent globalization activities affect the reproduction or erosion of the three institutional complexes which shape the factors of production: the financial system; the innovation system; and the industrial relations system. The paper concludes that a new type of transformation - hybridization - is emerging. It is regarded as a consequence of German companies' growing integration into a global economic system.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Heidi Gottfried British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 235-259.
This paper adopts a regulation framework to chart the emergence of neo-Fordism as a flexible accumulation regime and mode of social regulation. Neo-Fordism relies on old Fordist principles as well as incorporating new models of emergent post-Fordisms; old and new social relationships, in their particular combination, specify the trajectory of national variants. It is argued that Fordist bargains institutionalized the terms of a compromise between labor, capital and the state. These bargains embedded a male-breadwinner gender contract compromising women's positions and standardardizing employment contracts around the needs, interests and authority of men. A focus on compromises and contracts makes visible the differentiated gender effects of work transformation in each country.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hadfield, Steve Hall, Dick Hobbs British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 707-717.
This paper focuses upon the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society. This emergence features two key processes: firstly a shift in economic development from the industrial to the post-industrial; secondly a significant orientation of urban governance involving a move away from the traditional managerial functions of local service provision, towards an en trepreneurial stance primarily focused on the facilitation of economic growth. Central to this new economic era is the identification and promotion of liminality. The State's apparent inability to control these new leisure zones constitutes the creation of an urban frontier that is governed by commercial imperatives.
In search of the wage-labour/service contract: New evidence on the validity of the Goldthorpe class schema [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans, Colin Mills British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 755-756.
In this paper we examine new empirical evidence on the coherence and magnitude of the main classes in the Goldthorpe class schema. Particular attention is paid to issues that have recently been a source of academic dispute: the coherence and size of the service class and the distinction between the service class and intermediate classes. Using recently available British data collected by the Office for National Statistics we examine: 1. the extent to which measures of class-relevant job characteristics are empirically discriminated by the categories of the schema, 2. the structure of a contract type dimension of employment relations conceived of as a categorical latent variable, and 3. the association between this latent variable and both the Goldthorpe class schema and a related measure socio-economic group (SEG).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Adam Swift British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 663-679.
Abstract: Distinguishing between an explanatory and a normative interest in social stratification, this paper considers the relation between class analysis and the value of equality. Starting from the familiar distinction between (in)equality of position and (in)equality of opportunity, and noting the extent to which mobility research focuses on the latter, it suggests that class positions can themselves be characterized in terms of the opportunities they yield to those occupymg them. This enables the clear identification of the kinds of inequality that are and are not addressed by research findings presented in terms of class categories, and odds ratios. The significance of those findings from a normative perspective is then discussed, and their limitations are emphasized - though the paper also explains in what ways they are indeed of normative relevance.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nonna Barkhatova, Peter McMylor, Rosemary Mellor British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 249-269.
Aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia are explored via a series of interview-based case studies. The origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union are noted. The complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs are revealed and it is suggested that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke, Oriel Sullivan British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 331-347.
Some macro-sociological questions about changes in broad categories of time-use are addressed. Reference is made to some well-known sociological and historical accounts of such change, and to the fact that time-use diary data has only relatively recently become available for analyzing trends over time. The data used are drawn from a comparative cross-time data archive held by the Institute for Social and Economic Research at Essex University, comprising successive time-use diary surveys from a range of industrialized countries collected from the 1960s to the 1990s. The time use evidence suggests relative stability in the balance between work and leisure time over the period covered by the analyses. Some alternative explanations are advanced for why there seems to be a gap between this evidence and, on the one hand, the burgeoning literature in both academic and popular media addressing the time famine and, on the other, people's professed experience of what is happening to their time.