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Reform of pension schemes in the OECD countries

Опубликовано на портале: 09-03-2004
International Labour Review. 1996.  Vol. 135. No. 2. P. 181-205. 
The current pensions situation requires a number of reforms in order to correct distortions which have emerged and to meet the challenges posed by the radically changing demographic structure of most European countries. The direction that those reforms should take is crucial to the current debate on the outlook for the Welfare State.

This article examines the pension schemes of the most developed countries of the OECD, with particular reference to Spain, and discusses the prospects for reform.

Структура статьи:
  1. Introduction
  2. The "three worlds" of social protection
  3. The universal "social citizenship" model
  4. The British model in context
  5. The limits of the Welfare State: "Social dumping" and the benchmarking process
  6. A Latin variant of the Bismarkian model: The Spanish case
  7. Proposal for an objective system of three-dimensional comparison
  8. Conclusion: Towards continuous, gradual reform
Иллюстрации в статье:
  1. Диаграмма "Social protection expenditure in the European Union, 1993, broken down by main contingency and country, as percentage of GDP"
  2. График "Expenditure on retirement pensions in the five largest EU countries, 1980-83 (percentage of GDP)"
  3. Диаграмма "Spain: Initial pensions, wages and income replacement rates, 1980-95"
  4. Диаграмма "Three-dimensional diagram of comparison between public pension schemes (1985 data)"
  5. График "OECD countries: Rates of activity, employment, wage employment and coverage, 1993 (percentages)"
  6. График "OECD countries: Pension expenditure, working-age population and dependency ratio, 1993"
  7. Диаграмма "OECD. Degree of retirement protection and extent of coverage under the general scheme, 1993"
  8. Диаграмма "Spain: Impact of the proposed reform of the pension system, with average protection for 1995-2025 and a contribution base of 15 years"
Таблицы в статье
  1. Old-age, disability and survivors' pensions in the EU countries, 1993: Total expenditure as percentage of GDP
  2. Theoretical and effective replacement rates in the relation to the net average wage in France, Germany, Italy and Spain (percentages)
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