This research sought to identify leadership styles of enterprise managers in four
countries of the former USSR. The survey was based on the Bass and Avolio MLQ5x leadership
styles instrument. Valid responses were received from 2,391 managers and employees
at nine manufacturing enterprises located in Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan and the
Kyrgyz Republic. The results suggest that managers in these four countries used three
well-known leadership styles - transactional, transformational, and laissez-faire.
However, the laissez-faire style was not prevalent. Overall, transactional contingent
reward leadership was used more often than any other approaches. Charisma and individualized
consideration received the lowest scores among the transformational leadership style
dimensions. Tests of the relationship between leadership styles and managerial performance
measures indicated that contingent reward and charisma had the strongest relationship
with positive outcomes. Individual country leadership style profiles and implications
for developing leadership training programs, and for the transfer of Western organization
development approaches are discussed.