One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.