Analysis of longitudinal data for immigrants presents a more pessimistic portrait of immigrants' economic success. First, the rate of growth of immigrant earnings was overstated in census-based studies. Second, the worsening of immigrant earnings for more recent arrival cohorts is deeper than previously suggested. Against these two negative findings, one must keep in mind an important caveat. The steeper cohort decline in earnings may be a sign of greater human-capital investment by more recent immigrants. Longitudinal data suggest a strong degree of earnings convergence: immigrants who start at lower earnings quickly make up a large part of the deficit relative to their immigrant counterparts.