An empirical tradition in international trade seeks to establish whether the predictions
of factor abundance theory match present-day data. In the analysis of goods trade
and factor endowments, mildly encouraging results were found by Leamer et al. But
ever since the appearance of Leontief's paradox, the measured factor content of trade
has always been found to be far smaller than its predicted magnitude in the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek
framework, the so-called 'missing trade' mystery. Autors wonder if this problem was there
in the theory from the beginning. This seems like a fairer test of its creators'
original enterprise. Autors apply contemporary tests to historical data on goods and
factor trade from Ohlin's time. Autor's analysis is set in a very different context than
contemporary studies - an era with lower trade barriers, higher transport costs,
a more skewed global distribution of the relevant factors (especially land), and
comparably large productivity divergence. Autors find some support for the theory, but
also encounter common problems. Autor's work thus complements the tests applied to today's
data and informs our search for improved models of trade.