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Власть, элита и масса: параметры взаимоотношений в российских кризисах

русская версия

Опубликовано на портале: 07-11-2006
Power, Elite, and Masses: the Dimensions of Interrelations in Russian Crises (Yury Levada). The characteristics of structural components of the processes taking place in the country remain the focus of researchers’ attention and of public discussions. One is tempted to analyze and assess these components separately when reproaches (or expectations) are addressed to one of them: "power", "elite", "people", and interrelations of these phenomena remain in the background.
The most important characteristic feature of all Russian elite groups is their orientation to the state. Neither socio-political crises nor the replacements of the regimes brought about principal changes in such state of the matters. In modern "elite" zone we may observe rather decreased level of self-identification and differentiation of specific interests and at the same time excess consolidation of elite and power structures. In the sphere of relations between elite structures and the masses during recent three hundred years one could observe the alternation of habitual and (at turning points) non-habitual forms of opposition, the elite having been practically invariably the support and conductor of power influence (protesting elite trends in the late XIX-th century or a hundred years later were acting rather as "counter-elites").
Recent time surveys show significant peculiarities of mass attitudes towards the Russian power in different epochs. Evaluations of the Soviet power properties by the electorates of modern political forces are evidently ideologically biased. Demonstratively critical evaluations of the present power are extremely loosely connected to the expressions of loyalty towards its institutions and bearers.
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