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Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective

Опубликовано на портале: 16-08-2005
Ред.: David B. Grusky
Boulder: Westview Press, 2001
The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic articles that have defined and redefined the contours of the field.

In this up-to-date Anthology, the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays (commissioned from leading scholars) providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. This comprehensive reader is defined as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on social classes, occupations, labor markets, or social mobility.

This volume offers essential reading for undergraduates who require an introduction to the field, for graduate students who wish to broaden their understanding of stratification research, and for advanced scholars who seek a basic reference guide. Although most of the selections are middle-range theoretical pieces suitable for introductory courses, then Anthology also includes advanced contributions on the cutting edge of research. The editor outlines a modified study plan for undergraduate students requiring a basic introduction to the field.



„A very important collection of the most significant contributions to this core area of sociology, including excellent coverage of the most recent work in the field. The Anthology surely will become the standard classroom text and an invaluable reference.“
                       Aage B. Sørensen, Harvard University


„Sociologists have not had an up-to-date reader on social stratification for twenty years. This novel collection does the job. Its coverage is both broad and deep, running the theoretical gamut from functionalism through class analysis to post-industrialism, yet also challenging the reader to work through the key quantitative studies on the cutting edge of research.“
                       Robert M. Hauser, University of Wisconsin

Gender and Class
Study Guidexv
Preface and AcknowledgementsXvii
Part I. Introduction
David B. Grusky
     The Contours of Social Stratification3
Part II. Forms of Stratification
The Functions of Stratification
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore
     Some Principles of Stratification39
The Dysfunctions of Stratification
Melvin M. Tumin
     Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis 47
Concluding Commentary to Part II
Gerhard Lensky
     New Light on Old Issues: The Relevance of „Really Existing Socialist Societies“ for Stratification Theory55
Part III. The Structure of Modern Stratification
Theories of Class
Marx and Post-Marxists
Karl Marx
     Alienation and Social Classes65
     Classes in Capitalism and Pre-Capitalism69
     Ideology and Class78
     Value and Surplus Value80
Ralf Dahrendorf
     Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society 82
Eric Olin Wright
     Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of Class Structure 94
     A General Framework for the Analysis of Class Structure 98
Immanuel Wallerstein
     Class Conflict in the Capitalist World Economy 110
Weber and Post-Weberians
Max Weber
     Class, Status, Party113
     Status Groups and Classes122
     Open and Closed Relationships126
     The Rationalization of Education and Training 129
Anthony Giddens
     The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies 131
Frank Parkin
     Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique 141
The Ruling Class and Elites
Gaetano Mosca155
     The Ruling Class
C. Wright Mills
     The Power Elite161
Anthony Giddens
     Elites and Power170
Michael Useem
     The Inner Circle175
Edward A. Shils
     The Political Class in the Age of Mass Society: Collectivistic Liberalism and Social Democracy184
Gradational Status Groupings
Reputation, Deference, and Prestige
W. Lloyd Warner, with Marchia Meeker and Kenneth Eells
     Social Class in America190
Edward A. Shils
     Deference197
Occupational Hierarchies
Peter M. Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan with the collaboration of Andrea Tyree
     Measuring the Status of Occupations204
Donald J. Treiman
     Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective 208
John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope
     Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige 212
David L. Featherman and Robert M. Hauser
     Prestige of Socioeconomic Scales in the Study of Occupational Achievement?219
Robert W. Hodge
     The Measurement of Occupational Status221
Concluding Commentary to Part Three
Aage B. Sørensen
     The Basic Concepts of Stratification Research: Class, Status, and Power229
Part IV. Generating Stratification
Social Mobility
Classical View Points
Pitirim A. Sorokin
     Social and Cultural Mobility245
Seymour Martin Lipset, Reinhard Bendix, and Hans L. Zetterberg
     Social Mobility in Industrial Society250
Ralph H. Turner
     Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System 260
Modern Analyses
David L. Featherman and Robert M. Hauser
     A refined Model of Occupational Mobility265
David B. Grusky and Robert M. Hauser
     Comparative Social Mobility Revisited: Models of Convergence and Divergence in 16 Countries275
Robert Erikson and John H. Goldthorpe
     Trends in Class Mobility: The Post-War European Experience 289
Status and Income Attainment
Basic Models
Peter M. Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan, with the collaboration of Andrea Tyree
     The Process of Stratification317
Christopher Jencks, Marshall Smith, Henry Acland, Mary Jo Bane, David Cohen, Herbert Gintis, Barbara Heubs, and Stephan Michenson
     Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America329
Social Psychological Models
William H. Sewell, Archibald O. Haller, and Alejandro Portes
     The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process 336
Jay Macleod
     Ain’t No Makin’ It: Leveled Aspirations in a Low-income Neighborhood347
The „New Structuralism“
Michael J. Piore
     The Dual Labor Market: Theory and Implications 359
Aage B. Sørensen and Arne L. Kalleberg
     An Outline of a Theory of Income Differences 362
Mark Granovetter
     Toward a Sociological Theory of Income Differences 370
Concluding Remarks to Part Four
James N. Baron
     Reflections on Recent Generations of Mobility Research 384
Part V. The Consequences of Stratification
Life-Styles and Consumption Patterns
Tornstein Veblen
     The Theory of the Leisure Class397
Pierre Bourdieu
     Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste 404
Attitudes and Personalities
Melvin L. Kohn
     Job Complexity and Adult Personality430
James A. Davis
     Achievement Variables and Class Cultures: Family, Schooling, Job, and Forty-Nine Dependent Variables in the Cumulative GSS439
Concluding Commentary to Part Five
Paul DiMaggio
     Social Stratification, Life-Style, and Social Cognition 458
Part VI. Ascriptive Processes
Racial and Ethnic Stratification
Theories of Ethnic Stratification
Michel Reich
     The Economics of Racism469
Edna Bonacich
     A Theory of Ethnic Antagonism: The Split Labor Market 474
Michael Hechter
     Towards a Theory of Ethnic Change487
Michael T. Hannan
     Dynamics of Ethnic Boundaries500
Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning
     The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples 509
The Evolution of Ethnic Stratification
William Julius Wilson
     The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions520
Michael Hout
     Occupational Mobility of Black Man: 1962 to 1973 531
Stanley Lieberson
     A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880543
The Underclass
Daniel P. Moynihan
     The Tangle of Pathology555
William Julius Wilson
     The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner560
     City, the Underclass, and Public Policy
Gender Stratification
Shulamith Firestone
     The Dialectic of Sex568
Heidi Hartmann
     The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union570
Szonja Szelényi
     Women and the Class Structure577
Occupational and Wage Discrimination
Supply-Side Approaches
Solomon W. Polachek and W. Stalney Siebert
     Gender in the Labor Market583
Paula England
     Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation590
Demand-Side Approaches
Kenneth J. Arrow
     The Theory of Discrimination604
William T. Bielby and James N. Baron
     Men and Women at Work: Sex Segregation and Statistical Discrimination606
Gender and Status Hierarchies
William H. Sewell, Robert M. Hauser, and Wendy C. Wolf
     Sex, Schooling, and Occupational Status633
Concluding Commentary to Part Six
Stanley Lieberson
     Understanding Ascriptive Stratification: Some Issues and Principles649
Part VII. The Evolution of Modern Stratification
Theories of Industrialism and Modernity
Clark Kerr, John T. Dunlop, Fredrick H. Narbison, and Charles A. Myers
     Industrialism and Industrial Man659
Talcott Parsons
     Equality and Inequality in Modern Society, or Social Stratification Revisited670
Theories of Post-Industrialism and Post-Modernity
Daniel Bell
     The Coming of Post-Industrial Society686
G&osplash;sta Esping-Andersen
     Postindustrial Cleavage Structures: A Comparison of Evolving Patterns of Social Stratification in Germany, Sweden, and the United States 697
Ron Eyerman
     Modernity and Social Movements707
New Class Theories
Alvin W. Gouldner
     The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class711
Ivàn Szelényi
     Post-Industrialism, Post-Communism, and the New Class 723
Concluding Commentary to Part Seven
John W. Meyer
     The Evolution of Modern Stratification Systems 730
About the Book and Editor739
Index741
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