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Dynamising National Innovation Systems

Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2003
Europe: OECD, 2002
This report presents a synthesis of the main findings of the OECD project on National Innovation Systems. This project has spanned some seven years and three phases of project implementation. It was carried out under the auspices of the Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP) and its working party on Technology and Innovation Policy (TIP). The synthesis covers the full project, but concentrates on the most recent outcomes. It is based mainly on the work of three Focus Groups which undertook analytical work on three areas in the last phase of the project: Clusters, innovative firms and networks, and human resource mobility. The Focus Groups have reported their work in a series of OECD proceedings published during the summer and fall of 2001. The NIS approach rests on the interactive model of the innovation process that puts an emphasis on market and non-market knowledge transactions among firms, institutions and the human resources involved. Innovation performance depends on the scope and efficiency of such transactions, themselves influenced by framework conditions governing capital, products and labour markets and by institutional set ups and policy actions addressing market and systemic failures specific to knowledge transactions.


Summary


Part I. Introduction

Background
Intermediary findings of the NIS project
The objective of this report

Part II. Innovation through Dynamic Systems
Towards a dynamic, innovation-driven economy
The NIS approach: Managing knowledge, interactions and institutions
What are interactions?
Providing dynamism in innovation systems
Dimensions of growth in innovation systems
Implementing the NIS approach

Part III. Dynamism and Growth in Innovation Systems
The building block: Innovative firms
Firms grow through transitions
Firms have degrees of freedom in innovation
Reinventing the firm
Non-technological innovation is important
Clustering of innovative firms
The cluster concept
Different innovation patterns in different clusters
Key factors in cluster development
Networking in uncertain and rapidly changing environments
Collaboration is pervasive but the intensity and patterns of collaboration patterns are country-specific
Domestic and foreign networks reinforce each other
Networking extends to the science system
Government-induced international networking generates national and industry-specific spillovers
Competing for skills: Flows of human resources in innovation systems
The importance of skills and know-how
Labour mobility and economic performance
International mobility of human resources in science and technology
Complex interactions create resilient, dynamic and adaptive innovation systems
Summing up

Part IV. Dynamising Innovation Systems through Comprehensive Policy
The need for coherent and comprehensive policy-making
Structuring and dynamising the innovation process
Enhancing firms innovative capacities
Exploiting further the power of markets
Securing investment in knowledge
Promoting the commercialisation of publicly-funded research
Promoting cluster development
Promoting internationally-open networks
From public support to system management
Comprehensive, coherent and customised innovation policies
Prioritising and sequencing policies
Policy co-ordination to improve governance of the NIS
Policy learning

Concluding Remarks: NIS as a Benchmarking Tool
Annex the NIS Ppoject

The OECD project on National Innovation Systems
The Focus Groups
References
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