The article is devoted to the analysis of the modern state of the system of social orphanhood prevention in one of the largest regions of Russia, namely Rostov region. The investigation is based on the analysis of the documents, juridical foundation and measures of social policy, series of expert interviews and case study of the special services, helping crisis children and families. In conditions of economic stabilization the reduction of the number of neglected and uncared*for children, having been revealed for the last five years in Rostov region, testifies to the outlined positive tendency and
makes it possible to reform the actions of corresponding organizations from the regime of the urgent social help to neglected and uncared*for children to the regime of the system prevention of social problems. At the same time the prevention system in the region is still incomplete and shows rigidity in the aspects of reorientation to the work with a risky family as a factor of social orphanhood.