In this paper author investigates a Russian state support policy of innovative sector,
first of all the small highly technological companies. Considering a wide spectrum
of possible innovative activity (in technologies, marketing, management, business-processes,
etc.), the author focuses attention to technological innovations and a state policy
of their development. The hi-tech sphere of economy first of all requires the state
support of innovative activity because large investments requirement into researches
and development, creation of manufacture, long terms of feedback under projects.
On the basis of the analysis the presence of separate tools of the state support
realized by various government authorities is revealed. Existing forms of the state
support of innovative activity with the certain degree of reserve can be divided
on financial and not financial. Financial forms of support include the support connected
with granting of financing (directly by the authorities or through tools of state-private
partnership) and economy on payments in favour of the state (tax and customs privileges).
Not financial forms of support include an infrastructure creation for innovative
activity - for example, technoparks and business-incubators, initiatives in the field
of transfer of the rights to intellectual property, an information field creation
and other initiatives.
Now there’re a lot forms and instruments of the innovative activity state support
in the Russian Federation that can be characterized by:
1. The development and support of the small highly technological companies is considered
in various federal and ministerial programs. Various forms of financial and not financial
support of the companies are used, but to be carried out they by various government
authorities which not always consider a picture as a whole that leads to misbalance
of tools. It seems perspective 1) to create special small business government agency
(like US Small Business Administration) 2) to use segment branch/industry specificity
of support (priorities are given nanotehnology, to biotechnologies and information
2. On the beginning 2008 financial forms of the state support are developed more,
than not financial. In the near future it is possible to predict excess of the money
resources offer over quantity perspective for financing the small innovative companies.
3. Current forms of development and support have essential lacks from the point of
view of needs of the small companies, have no necessary industry specificity, which
crucial important in view of a high capital intensity (except for information technologies
which least require a special infrastructure in comparison with nano- and biotechnologies).
4. New forms of state support of small innovative business in highly technological
innovative spheres are offered: 1) technozones on the basis of existing scientific
research institutes (SRI) and state defensive enterprises, and 2) the leasing company
specializing on the highly technological equipment. Planned efficiency of new state
innovative support tools is essential above the majority existing. New forms of support
can be realized within the already operating structures of the state support, for
example The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnology.