The article focuses on the issues of Russian women’s participation in social and political life of the country, at every level of decision-making. Broad social support of every segment of population: civil solidarity and initiatives of all the citizens, men and women – is an essential part of democratic development of society in Russia. The comparative analysis of women’s representation in parliaments and governments abroad and in Russia shows that our country greatly lags behind from many world countries. Today Russian and foreign political scientists bring the issues of women’s representation at every official level to the fore, because for a strong government and democratic development of its society it is indispensable to deal with human rights challenges, to serve contradictory interests of diverse social groups and formulate an adequate and sound social policy. The authors give a number of reasons common for the majority of countries, which show that women’s participation at every level of a country’s political life is a rather pressing issue at the moment. According to the authors, the main reasons are as follows: women’s participation in political life is imperative for society’s democratic, humane and stable development, since the equality of sexes shifts state policy priorities to a person, living conditions, healthcare, education, i.e. social spheres aimed at future development. Correcting gender imbalance in government structures will assist women to use human rights system adequately to fight all types of sex discrimination and to develop a system of basic human values in a new historical environment. Also, it will provide a more efficient mechanism of state administration and help to consider diverse social interests. Creativity and ground-breaking abilities of men as well as women are considered to be national intellectual wealth, which is to be adequately used. With equal access of sexes to state administration, the choice of qualified staff extends significantly, a “gender gap” at the decision-making level narrows and public image of a state as a developed democratic society is being promoted. The authors illustrate that the issue of engaging Russian women into state legislative and executive activities has deep historical roots and reflects the system of state administration 227 Abstracts aimed at men, which does not encourage promotion of women. The Soviet era saw such state of affairs, and present-day Russia witnesses the same. Women’s promotion into state administration system at every level will become effective, only if declared a top priority of state policy. Allocation of personnel resources mechanism, which is most likely to ensure equal admission of sexes to government bodies, still raises controversy in Russia and has not been yet adjusted to the present-day environment. In conclusion, the authors introduce a set of state policy measures, applicable for present-day implementation, promoting women’s participation at every level of state administration. For one thing, it comprises a legal and regulatory framework for carrying into life Article 19 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, and personnel allocation law elaboration and penalties for its violation. For another thing, it implies creation of educational programs, designed for spreading gender knowledge, which will help society to perceive principles of equal rights and join efforts. The time has come for practical steps to be taken on the issue of equality of sexes instead of endlessly debating it, taking into consideration our personal and the world’s experience.