The paper discusses quantitative estimations of adult vocational training andits private efficiency that are based on the data from the Russian LongitudinalMonitoring Survey (RLMS).The results of the analysis performed confirmed our hypothesis that at firstincomes of those who participated in vocational training were growing morerapidly relative to incomes of those who did not participate. Based on this we canargue that adult vocational training is an efficient way for private income growth. However the momentum gained was weakening and training income premiumwas gradually fading if recurrent training hadn’t occurred.As for social and economic inequalities reproduction it turned out that incomepremium for adult vocational training was distributed not merely unequallyamong its participants but in favor of their minority. Average positive outcomewas provided by abnormal income increase obtained by particularly “successful” training graduates whereas only a minor part of all participants had any economicgain from training. Therefore we have grounds to argue that in the Russiancontext adult vocational training is a meritocratic institution that effects selectionand promotion of workers by their aptitudes. It is most likely that distribution ofeconomic outcomes of training in favor of minority plays its role in diminishing incentives of its potential recipients and can be considered as one of the majorcauses of persistently low work force participation indicators in Russia (relativeto economically developed countries). Such a profile of distribution may alsoexplain these indicators downtrend that was found out in our research.It was revealed that both motivation to knowledge consumption andexpectation of pure economic benefits were not the main factors of participationin training if they were taken separately. However a more mixed motivationdriven not only by income growth expectations but also by participants’ cognitiveinterest and their need in self-realization appeared to be a stimulus for learningstrong enough to enhance human capital formation and accumulation.