In this article the substantive provisions of the resource-based theory are generalized, modified and transferred from population of firms on population of any economic systems (firm, corporation, clusters, business groups, economic projects, processes, environments, etc.). The concept of competitive advantages of economic system is generalized. In appropriate way, that gives the chance to speak about advantages of the given system not only in case of competitive, but also in case of cooperation or other kinds of mutual relations between systems. It is shown that the space and time can be considered as base (primary) kinds of resources of economic system and system potential on their effective utilization — as its base capabilities. This approach allows to reveal and investigate base structures of steady groupings of the economic systems arising in connection with an exchange by base resources and capabilities and providing steady functioning of these groups and economy as a whole.