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The Value Heterogeneity of the European Countries Population: Typology Based on R. Inglehart Indicators

русская версия

Опубликовано на портале: 08-02-2013
Тематический раздел:
1. Respondents from 43 European countries have been classified by latent class analysis (LCA) on the basis of their responses to questions which Inglehart used to measure Secular-Rational/Traditional and Self-Expression/Survival values. 2. Three value classes have been identified. Members of class 1 (37% of European population) demonstrate high value of obedience and low value of self-directed social action. Members of class 3 (23% of population) have opposite values, i.e. a strong preference for independent action and low value of obeying the regulations from the «top». Europeans belonging to value class 2 (40% of population), combine low value of obeying to both earthly and heavenly powers with low value of self-directed activity. Such a combination results in depriving members of class 2 both of the external and internal sources of activity. Our description of classes is different from
R. Inglehart’s descriptions of values, since in our classes Survival values are intermixed with Traditional ones and Secular-Rational values are intermixed with Self-Expression ones. 3. All European countries are internally
heterogeneous, each of them has representatives of at least two value classes and most countries have representatives of all three value classes. Due to this fact, each European country has something in common with each other. 4. The typology describes value differences between countries in terms of within-country distributions of three value classes. The share of class 3 members (preference for self-directed autonomy) exceeds the share of class 1 members (preference for hierarchy of power) in the Nordic and Western European countries. The share of class 1 exceeds the share of class 3 in the Post-Communist and Mediterranean countries. The share of class 2 (both
external control and self-control have low value) has low variance between countries, however this share is bigger in the Post-Communist, Mediterranean and Western European countries than in Nordic ones. 5. Age, gender, education level, type of settlement, parental family have significant effects on the probability of membership in each of value
classes. The effect of country belongingness on class membership stays the same after controlling for all these variables. The share of people belonging to class 3 increases and share of people belonging to class 1 decreases with the increase of country level of economic development, and this fact is consistent with R. Inglehart and his colleagues’ findings. The share of people belonging to class 2 is the highest in the European countries with average levels of economic development. It is demonstrated that country share of class 2 is linked with symptoms of social disorganization such as higher rates of alcohol consumption, suicide and total deaths by injuries. All these facts confirm the interpretation of class 2 as a «transitional» one between the traditional type of values (class 1) and the type of values, common in the most advanced societies of ‘high modernity’ (class 3).