The article discusses the interpretation of the Marxian legacy proposed by I.I. Rubin. This interpretation provided an answer to the challenges faced by Marxism at the turn of the twentieth century. From the 1970s it becomes widely known abroad. Despite the tragic fate of the scholar, his works had made a significant impact on economic studies in the Soviet Union. However, their perception was greatly complicated due to the effect of social and political factors related to the functioning of the Soviet political economy.