Written almost 300 years ago, «A treatise on poverty and wealth» by I.T. Pososhkov was the first Russian paper intentionally devoted to the complex analysis of socio-economic issues. Conventionally included among the mercantilists, I.T. Pososhkov is rather considered to be compared with the authors of «governor's literature» of the Eastern Societies characterized by the Asiatic mode of production. Likewise the authors of «Kuan-tzu» and «Arthashastra», I.T. Pososhkov dealt with the macroeconomic issues from the viewpoint of state's concern. In «A treatise on poverty and wealth» the author's conception of power-property institutions' normativity had been reflected, along with the idea of subjection of private property institutions to the power-property institutions. A treatise by I.T. Pososhkov highlights one of the features of the modernization process in Russia — a tendency to fight against the negative occurrence of the market economy by means of etatism reinforcement, which frequently results in excessive «state failure» compared to «marketfailure».