The paper is devoted to studying the works of Karl Marx in Imperial Russia. The author examines the background and reasons for rejection of the teachings of Marx Western academic economic science on the one hand, and the rapid spread of Marxism in the country, the second echelon of capitalism on the other. Particular attention is paid to analysis of works by V. Lenin, showing his role as a popularizer and vulgarizer Marx, investigates the factors that contributed to Russification and orientalization Marxism. The spread of Marxism in the Russian Empire "breadth" occurred to a much greater extent than is allowed domestic economic, social and cultural conditions. But the same Russian reality has become obstacle to the spread of Marxism in Russia, "depth", for its development in an integrated and adequate primary source form. In conclusion, the author analyzes the causes of increasing interest to the academic Marxism, both in our country and abroad.