Institutionally caused structural and professional disproportions (dissonances) between the professional structures of labor demand, education services demand and education services supply, are emphasized by the authors. In this regard, problems of Post-Soviet Russia are similar to those occuring in other catching-up countries ((India, for example), including: the oversupply of specialists in humanities, the undersupply of specialists in technical and natural sciences. To prove the existence and to measure the structural and professional disproportions statistics is analyzed, including structures of labor demand, the demand for postschool education and the supply of educational services in different specialties, areas and professions in Russia in 2000-2010s. The conclusion is made that there are not severe disproportions between the professional structure of youth demand for education services and that of postschool educational services supply. Instead, they do exist between the two above-mentioned structures, on the one hand, and the professional structure of demand for labor in the economy, on the other hand. The classification of the major institutional factors affecting the behavior of young people in the choice of profession, causing structural and professional disproportions is proposed.