The article describes the relationship of M.K. Petrov's sociology of science with the theory of gift and modern research problems of anarchism. It is shown that the individual gifts exchange is based on the feelings of individuals, and the gifts exchange is a guarantee of anarchic stability. Methods for solution of the problem of voluntary and involuntary solidarity demonstrate the universality of conflict between society and individual. Market mechanism cannot provide normal functioning of the scientific community. In the latter, only those who gives their ideas to colleagues without charge, become recognized and obtain high status. The rest of the formal members of the scientific community are parasites and usurers. Values of the scientific community tie archaics and modernity together. Scientist is a cognitive donor. Institutions of modern science (universities, military agencies and industrial organizations) do not fulfill this function. The scientific community is such as it is only to the extent that the ideas are moving as gifts within it. Ideas exchange forms the essence of collective intelligence. It is rather sharing ideas that cooperating people that can provide the scientific progress. Commodification of ideas impedes the progress and knowledge integration. Strict sense of the term «academic freedom» implies freedom of ideas, not individuals. If the ideas are treated as a commodity, they cannot circulate freely. In a free market people had become free, but the ideas were not. Most modern academic institutions demonstrate trivial research results. The contract theory of the organization of science disorganizes science. Scientific community is anomalous one that emerged on the basis of gifts exchange. Petrov's sociology of science received unexpected support from the modern anthropological research and the theory of anarchism.