Based on the data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS- HSE) quality of human capital of the Russians workers in its classical definition, analysis is presented in the article. For the purposes of the analysis, the special index and individual indicators have been constructed. It is shown that in domestic labor market there are serious discrepancies between the vocational training of workers and the duties which are carried out by them, since formally identical jobs in many cases are occupied by people with absolutely different level of human capital. Construction of the Index of the quality of general human capital helped to identify the group of workers with its high quality that exceeds the average level of the Russian workers. This group can potentially be a reserve for development and implementation of innovations in the domestic economy. The main advantages of workers with high quality of human capital are knowledge on computer technologies and professional education which does not necessarily correspond, however, to a profile of the performed work. The analysis of dynamics of quality of the human capital of workers has also shown that since the mid-1990s it has been gradually increasing up to 2010. However after 2010 this trend has been reversed: workers not only less often choose the work according to a profile of their professional education, but also are in general less likely to get a got. Serious barriers on the way of improvement of the quality of the Russian workers' human capital are, firstly, limited and not growing number of the jobs that involve high qualification, and secondly, absence of demand for highly skilled workers from employers. Determination of other reasons of the decline in the quality of the Russian workers' human capital observed in recent years is seen as the goal for further research.