The basis of the study were the gender-sensitive assay of the processes of reproduction of the human capital in the South regions and the assessment of trends for gender equality in the context of more efficient use of human capital. The object of investigation was human capital by regions, the subject - the gender dimension as one of the factors in the development of human capital. The findings of the continuing gender gap were made on the basis of the analysis, caused by the fact that the period during which is possible to generate income from investment in human capital, is different for men and women. Empirical and factual analysis of human capital in the South Russian regions showed the unevenness of men and women in the following indicators: life expectancy, level of education, income, level of economic activity and return on investment and the achieved level of human capital; the continuing unequal access to economic resources and the absence of adequate gender policies, consistent with international law, allow to identify the factors that affect the efficient use of human capital in these regions, and to complete the evaluation model of human capital by J. Mintzer with a factor that takes into account gender-specific form and development of human capital. A logical extension of the work was the calculation of this factor for entire Russia and for the regions of the South and the North Caucasian Federal District. The reproduction of human capital is not possible without adequate consideration of gender indicators that is to consider as a reserve for more efficient use of human capital at the regional level and at the country level.