In the article, based on the data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) from 2016, factors that determine the quality of human capital of Russian workers are identified. As the main method of analysis, binary logistic regressions are used. It is shown that at present the quality of the human capital of Russian workers is determined by a relatively small set of factors. The main role in its formation is played by the institutional factors forming attitudes and behavioral patterns of workers in respect of education at different stages of their life. Most of the workers with a high quality of the general human capital grew in the cities and that is the most important, in the process of socialization got a valuable perception of education, therefore, they are ready to spend for its receiving own money and time irrespective of their economic situation. However, these are relatively few and the bulk of workers do not see a value of education. In addition, only in some sectors of the Russian economy, there is aт effective demand for workers with high-quality human capital, which discourages the bulk of the workers to change their attitudes which were formed in childhood. The lack of effective demand for a high-quality human capital of workers, on the one hand, is a consequence of the general ineffectiveness of a number of existing institutions in the country, and on the other hand, it’s a serious structural limitation to the growth of the number of workers with high-quality human capital. Also, we have confirmed the conclusions made using other methods of analysis in our previous studies, that age plays an important role in the processes of accumulation and renewal of general human capital in modern Russia, and as a result, the working youth is characterized by a higher quality of this capital compared with the workers from older generations.