Personnel security is the process of preventing negative impacts on a countryʼs national security by reducing risks and preventing threats related to labor resources, their intellectual potential, and social and labor relations in general. Our research has shown that in recent years in Russia there is an increase in the number of external labor migrants, contributing to a change in the structure of labor resources, the emergence of new and deepening existing contradictions, the activation of social, interethnic, interfaith and criminal problems. In our study, we focused on the influence of factors of the emerging multicultural environment on the sphere of social, labor and economic relations, as their impact necessitates changes in the functioning of the traditional domestic institutions of the socio-economic system and the sphere of labor, creating the basis for the formation of the institutional model of social and labor relations in the country. There is a strengthening of negative institutions and relations, including: shadow forms of remuneration and employment, corruption, criminalization of business, ignoring legal norms in the labor market, interethnic conflicts, problems in relations with the local population, etc. Thus, the changes those taking place in the quantitative and qualitative composition of labor resources form the need to improve the institutional model of social and labor relations in the labor market in order to strengthen the personnel security of the country.