In this article the interrelationships between linguistics and economics, which took place at different stages of their development, are explored. Term economics in this article refers to economic theory, economic history, as well as analysis (sociological or philosophical) of economic practices in general. In order to uncover essential similarities that are contained in these areas of knowledge, the task is to identify paradigmatic reasons that made possible methodological adoptions from one science to another and determined existence of a system of serial and deep parallels between them. At the same time, special attention is paid to exploration of these parallels in the context of a number of main intellectual approaches that have competed with each other during the past century: structuralism, logical positivism, and subjectivism. It is demonstrated that each of these philosophical approaches can be correlated with a special relationship to linguistic reality and with a specific economic theory at the same time. Thus, in this article is shown some close relationship of structuralism (and structural linguistics) with various types of Marxist discourses; Objectivism – and logical positivism – with the English and American economic tradition (economics), and subjectivism – with the concepts of the Austrian economic school. Along with this, the study provides explanations of some important reasons that historically underlay the identified correspondences. As such, there are found the reasons that (depending on the case under consideration) are completely different, varying from the social conditionality to depending on the national characteristics of the particular school of thought.