The article shows that the financial behavior of Russians has changed significantly over the past 15 years. The share of followers of passive financial behaviour has fallen sharply and the share of bank loans has increased significantly. At the same time, the increase in the number of people having savings was relatively small. It is shown that the rapid growth in the number of Russians with a credit load was facilitated by the "omnivorous" banks that issued loans regardless of the real ability of people to repay them, unlike social networks that lend to their members usually only in case of confidence in debt repayment. It is shown that groups with diverse financial behavior differ not only in the proportions of representatives of various income strata, but also in their other features (geography, educational, etc.). Considering credit-saving and consumer behavior the author states that development of bank crediting went in recent years alongside with the reduction of consumption of all paid services aiming at maintenance and development of the human capital. In the last 15 years both the earnings gain and borrowed funds Russians spend mainly on cars and durable goods. As a result, during these years there was an explosive growth of the vehicle-to-population ratio in the country, and computers, mobile phones, iPhones, iPads, air conditioners, etc. became an integral part of Russians everyday life. In addition, the population of the country has been actively improving its living conditions, what resulted in the increase of housing of Russians by 5 square meters per person. It is concluded that the priorities of financial behavior, which are typical for Russians, do not contribute to the achievement of the "knowledge economy" based on the advanced development of the Quaternary sector of the economy.