The study is devoted to the analysis of changes in adaptation strategies of Russians over the past 30 years. According to the analysis of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ data, the widespread adaptation strategies were shaping most actively in the 1990s, when new institutional conditions forced individuals to look for new ways for maintaining the material wellbeing of their households or even for surviving. It is also shown that the growth of real incomes in the 2000s led to a slight increase in the number of those who have successfully adapted to new conditions and could afford nothing more to do to improve their financial situation, but even in 2018, there were only 16% of the population. With regard to active forms of socio-economic adaptation, the article shows that by the end of the second decade of the XXI century, the shift of dominance in the relations of workers and employers towards the latter led to a reduction in supporters of strategies related to the labor market, due to a decrease in their effectiveness. It is concluded that the process of socio-economic adaptation of Russians to the current system of social relations in the country is still ongoing. And although it is quite intense, its vector is opposite to many of the tasks facing the country now, in particular-the course of “technological breakthrough”.