Administrative Science Quarterly
Agency and social networks: Strategies of action in a social structure of position, opposition, and opportunity [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William B. Stevenson, Danna Greenberg Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 651-678.
This study uses social movement concepts to explain the success and failure of actors in a network of relationships trying to influence policies on environmental issues in a small city. Results show that strategies to take action and mobilize others in a network of interorganizational relationships can vary depending on the social context, which consists of the political opportunity structure defined by government regulators, whether the actor faces opposition, and the actor's position in the network. Decisions to engage in strategies to try to influence government regulators directly, to use a broker to reach agreements with the opposition, or to form a coalition with actors in other organizations to influence government decision makers are affected by this social context. Results also show that even peripheral actors, usually assumed to be powerless in network studies, can influence policy if they use a direct-contact strategy and the political opportunity structure is favorable.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gautam Ahuja Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 3. P. 425-455.
To assess the effects of a firm's network of relations on innovation, this paper elaborates a theoretical framework that relates 3 aspects of a firm's ego network - direct ties, indirect ties, and structural holes - to the firm's subsequent innovation output. Results from a longitudinal study of firms in the international chemicals industry indicate support for the predictions on direct and indirect ties, but in the inter-firm collaboration network, increasing structural holes has a negative effect on innovation.
Friends in high places: The effects of social networks on discrimination in salary negotiations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marc-David L. Seidel, Jeffrey T. Polzer, Katherine J. Stewart Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-24.
This article tests hypotheses about the effects of social networks on inequitable salary negotiation outcomes using a US high-technology company's salary negotiation data for 1985-1995. The paper finds that members of racial minority groups negotiated significantly lower salary increases than majority members, but this effect was dramatically reduced when social ties to the organization were controlled. Having a social tie to the organization significantly increased salary negotiation outcomes, and minorities were less likely than majority members to have such a social tie.
How experience and network ties affect the influence of demographic minorities on corporate boards [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James D. Westphal, Laurie P. Milton Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 2. P. 366-398.
This study examines how the influence of directors who are demographic minorities on corporate boards is contingent on the prior experience of board members and the larger socia structural context in which demographic differences are embedded. The effects of minority status are assessed according to functional background, industry background, education, race, and gender for a large sample of corporate outside directors at Fortune/Forbes 500 companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Thomas D'Aunno, Melissa Succi, Jeffrey C. Alexander Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 679-703.
This paper focuses on a radical change, in which organizations abandon an institutionalized template for arranging their core activities, that is likely to occur in organizational fields that have strong, local market forces and strong but heterogeneous institutional forces. The role of market forces and heterogeneous institutional elements in promoting divergent change in core activities among all U.S. rural hospitals from 1984 to 1991 is examined. Results support the view that divergent change depends on both market forces (proximity to competitors, disadvantages in service mix) and institutional forces (state regulation, ownership and governance norms, and mimicry of models of divergent change).