Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007William Cockerham, Guenther Lueschen, Gerhard Kunz, Joe L. Spaeth Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1986. Vol. 27. No. 1. P. 1-14.
Data from the 1984 Illinois Comparative Health Survey are used to examine whether the poor have adopted a consumer orientation toward professional health services in view of the reduction of financial barriers and clear signs of increased physician utilization. It was found, however, that lower-status persons stand as more or less passive recipients of such services, with a significantly greater tendency to invest responsibility for their own physical health in the health-care delivery system itself. Yet there was a general lack of difference with respect to health lifestyles involving food habits, emphasis on appearance, sports and exercise, smoking, and alcohol use. A culture-of-medicine thesis was found to provide a stronger explanation of this situation than a culture-of-poverty perspective. Medicine and the mass media have promoted the practice of a healthy lifestyle, but have not encouraged consumerism in the physician-patient relationship. Consequently, it appears that where social institutions provide positive sanctions, self-management and consumerism seems to grow for the poor; but where negative sanctions exist, consumerism does not seem to flourish.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Joan R. Bloom, Jeffrey C. Alexander Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 84-95.
Nursing teams are conceptualized as coordination mechanisms that respond to task interdependence within the hospital unit. The form of coordination is predicted to result from organizational decision makers' conceptions of the work to be performed as well as the more objective characteristics of the work. The effects of these technological variables on coordination are mediated by the size of the unit and the degree of professionalism exhibited by the nursing staff. A path model is constructed and tested using a sample of 146 patient care units from a national sample of 17 hospitals. In general, the results are supportive of the model: both conceptions of a task and task predictability (or known technology) appear to affect coordination through other structural characteristics of the unit. On larger units the nursing team provides a hierarchical control mechanism, whereas teaming in units characterized by greater staff professionalism provide a means of lateral coordination as well as hierarchical control.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Margaret K. Nelson Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 339-352.
This paper reexamines the impact of preparation for childbirth on birth-related attitudes and events. Data were collected from approximately 300 obstetric patients before and immediately following childbirth. These data are used to demonstrate that working class and middle class women (in this study, defined on the basis of highest level of education) who do not attend childbirth classes have different attitudes toward, and experiences during, childbirth. The data also demonstrate that the impact of childbirth education is much greater among working class women than it is among middle class women. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
The Emergence of a Health Insurance System in a Developing Country: The Case of South Korea [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Sungnam Cho Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1989. Vol. 30. No. 4. P. 467-471.
In an attempt to understand the social forces and the economic and political conditions under which new social policies emerge in developing countries, this study outlines factors affecting the introduction of the health insurance system in South Korea. The emergence of the South Korean health insurance system was influenced by changing labor needs of the industrial sector, increasing social expectations, external and international pressures, increasing medical costs, and class conflict. These pressures compelled the South Korean government to respond to demands for the introduction of new social welfare policies in the 1970s. In the case of South Korea, the new health insurance system resulted from the government's attempts to cope with political, economic, and social pressures rather than from an ideological commitment to the well-being of the population. The resulting insurance system was a way to maintain the social order and legitimacy of the regime, and a means to promote the health of groups important to defense or production.