Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Опубликовано на портале: 04-03-2007Robert E. Clark, Emily E. LaBeff Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 4. P. 366-380.
This research focuses on the strategies used by various professionals in delivering news of death. The lack of well defined, normative guidelines for such deliveries adds to the problematic nature of the interaction. From in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, law enforcement officers, and clergy, a loose framework based on common themes was generated providing a processual view of death telling. Five distinct strategies of delivery developed within the framework. Discussion of each strategy indicates the significance of situational and occupational factors in delivering news of death. This study, though exploratory in nature, clarifies some of the processes involved in the delivery of bad news, and identifies several important problems surrounding death telling, such as lack of training and preparation among professionals for this role and their dislike for this aspect of their work.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Catherine Ross, John Mirowsky, Raymond S. Duff Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 4. P. 317-329.
Authors developed and tested a model of client satisfaction with medical care in which sociodemographic characteristics of the physician affect client satisfaction under conditions of unmet expectations and a lack of choice. They hypothesized that in small fee-for-service practices such as solo practice, where the client chooses his or her physician, status characteristics of the doctor would be unrelated to client satisfaction. Conversely, in large prepaid group practices where the client is assigned a physician, nonnormative physician status characteristics would create lower client satisfaction. Because expectations are based on statistical norms, it was hypothesized that clients in large prepaid multispecialty groups would be most satisfied with physicians who fit the norm-middle-aged white males from higher status Protestant or Jewish backgrounds. In a sample of pediatricians and their clients, authors found their hypotheses to be strongly supported, with one modification-the relationship between client satisfaction and the physician's socioeconomic background is parabolic. Furthermore, the negative effect of nonnormative physician religious status on client satisfaction in large prepaid groups is offset by the client-physician match and by experience with the physician.
Returning to the Doctor: The Effect of Client Characteristics, Type of Practice, and Experiences with Care [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Catherine Ross, Raymond S. Duff Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 2. P. 119-131.
Although a number of policy-makers have suggested that previous experiences with medical care affect subsequent use of physician services, few researchers have examined the issue empirically. Authors divide the determinants of revisiting the doctor in pediatric practice into three categories: client characteristics, organizational characteristics, and characteristics of the doctor-client interaction; and we develop a causal model. Although race, income, and education have no direct effects on the frequency of returning to the doctor, they have indirect effects through the organization of health care and experiences within the health care system. Clients who are poorly educated tend to have consistently negative experiences with the health care delivery system. These experiences affect subsequent use of services. Positive experiences with the interpersonal, psychosocial aspects of the doctor-client interaction increase a client's proclivity to return to the doctor, while negative doctor-client interactions decrease the probability of returning to the doctor.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Joan R. Bloom, Jeffrey C. Alexander Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 84-95.
Nursing teams are conceptualized as coordination mechanisms that respond to task interdependence within the hospital unit. The form of coordination is predicted to result from organizational decision makers' conceptions of the work to be performed as well as the more objective characteristics of the work. The effects of these technological variables on coordination are mediated by the size of the unit and the degree of professionalism exhibited by the nursing staff. A path model is constructed and tested using a sample of 146 patient care units from a national sample of 17 hospitals. In general, the results are supportive of the model: both conceptions of a task and task predictability (or known technology) appear to affect coordination through other structural characteristics of the unit. On larger units the nursing team provides a hierarchical control mechanism, whereas teaming in units characterized by greater staff professionalism provide a means of lateral coordination as well as hierarchical control.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Margaret K. Nelson Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 339-352.
This paper reexamines the impact of preparation for childbirth on birth-related attitudes and events. Data were collected from approximately 300 obstetric patients before and immediately following childbirth. These data are used to demonstrate that working class and middle class women (in this study, defined on the basis of highest level of education) who do not attend childbirth classes have different attitudes toward, and experiences during, childbirth. The data also demonstrate that the impact of childbirth education is much greater among working class women than it is among middle class women. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.