American Journal of Sociology
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Labor Pains: Change in Organizational Models and Employee Turnover in Young, High-Tech Firms [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004James N. Baron, Michael T. Hannan, Diane Burton American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 960-1012.
Organizational theories, especially ecological perspectives, emphasize the disruptive effects of change. However, the mechanisms producing these effects are seldom examined explicitly. This article examines one such mechanism employee turnover. Analyzing a sample of high-technology start-ups, we show that changes in the employment models or blueprints embraced by organizational leaders increase turnover, which in turn adversely affects subsequent organizational performance. Turnover associated with organizational change appears to be concentrated among the most senior employees, suggesting "old guard disenchantment" as the primary cause. The results are consistent with the claim of neoinstitutionalist scholars that founders impose cultural blueprints on nascent organizations and with the claim of organizational ecologists that altering such blueprints is disruptive and destabilizing.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Trond Petersen, Ishak Saporta, Marc-David L. Seidel American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 3. P. 763-816.
This study focuses on the impact of sex, race, and social networks, to analyze the hiring process in a midsized high-technology organization, using information on all 35,229 applicants in a 10-year period (1985 94). For gender, the process is entirely meritocratic: age and education account for all sex differences. But even without taking into account the two meritocratic variables, there are small if no differences between men and women at all stages in the hiring process. For ethnic minorities, the process is partly meritocratic but partly reliant upon social networks. Once referral method is taken into account, all race effects disappear. In hiring, ethnic minorities are thus disadvantaged in the processes that take place before the organization is contacted. They lack access to or utilize less well the social networks that lead to high success in getting hired.
Promotion Paradox: Organizational Mortality and Employee Promotion Chances in Silicon Valley Firms, 1946-1996 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Damon J. Phillips American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 1058-1098.
This article argues that there is a promotion paradox a negative relation between firm life chances and employee promotion chances. Author argues that this is due to a firms bargaining power, which increases with firms competitive strength. Author finds strong support using data on 50 years of Silicon Valley law firms and attorneys. Young, small, specialist, and low-status firms are more likely to fail but are also contexts with the highest promotion likelihood. Moreover, except for those firms that are "near death," an associate's promotion likelihood increases with the law firm's probability of failure.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Roberto M. Fernandez, Emilio J. Castilla, Paul Moore American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1288-1356.
This article argues that a common organizational practice the hiring of new workers via employee referrals provides key insights into the notion of social capital. Employers who use such hiring methods are quintessential social capitalists, viewing workers social connections as resources in which they can invest in order to gain economic returns in the form of better hiring outcomes. Using unique data on the dollar costs of screening, hiring, and training, this article finds that the firm s investment in the social capital of its employees yields significant economic returns.