American Sociological Review
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Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Janet C. Gornick, Jerry A. Jacobs American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 688-710.
Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we explore the influence of government employment on the gender gap in earnings in seven countries. We address four questions on the effects of public-sector employment on the gender gap in earnings: (1) Do governments offer jobs that are comparatively high paying? (2) Does public employment benefit some workers, such as low-paid workers, more than others? (3) Are public-sector employment advantages explained by differences in worker characteristics and the occupational mix? (4) What is the effect of public employment-its extent and its pay structure-on gender gaps in wages? Our results indicate marked variation across liberal, conservative, and social democratic welfare states, but reveal a number of uniformities as well. In most of the seven countries in our sample, public-sector workers earn more on average than do workers in the private sector, and most earnings advantages are concentrated on the low end of the earnings distribution. The effect of public employment on the overall gender gap in wages is limited in most countries. We discuss the implications of these results for theory and research on gender and the welfare state.
Glass Ceiling Effect or Cohort Effect? A Longitudinal Study of the Gender Earnings Gap for Engineers, 1982 to 1989 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Laurie A. Morgan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 4. P. 479-493.
Temporal Differentiation in the Occupational Mobility of Immigrant and Native-Born Latina Workers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Dowell Myers, Cynthia J. Cranford American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 68-93.
We estimate changes over time in the occupational participation of Latina workers. Applying a "double cohort" method for longitudinal analysis with census data, we clarify the effects of economic restructuring and economic assimilation. We investigate multiple temporal effects: immigration cohort, birth cohort, age at migration, duration in the United States, and advancing age. The analysis compares Latinas in southern California who are employed in low-wage factory jobs with Latinas employed in better-paying office jobs. Results indicate sharp temporal differentiation among the Latina workers, even after controlling for human capital. The newest arrivals concentrate in the growing light-manufacturing sector and remain there, to a relative degree, across subsequent decades. Workers who immigrated as young children (referred to as the 1.5 generation) diverge from their parents and tend to be employed in office jobs--a pattern similar to young native-born Latinas. Within cohorts' careers, workers shift out of factory jobs, but there is little net shift into office work. Instead, cohort succession is the dominant factor in workers' adaptation to a changing economic structure. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.