British Journal of Sociology
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke, Oriel Sullivan British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 331-347.
Some macro-sociological questions about changes in broad categories of time-use are addressed. Reference is made to some well-known sociological and historical accounts of such change, and to the fact that time-use diary data has only relatively recently become available for analyzing trends over time. The data used are drawn from a comparative cross-time data archive held by the Institute for Social and Economic Research at Essex University, comprising successive time-use diary surveys from a range of industrialized countries collected from the 1960s to the 1990s. The time use evidence suggests relative stability in the balance between work and leisure time over the period covered by the analyses. Some alternative explanations are advanced for why there seems to be a gap between this evidence and, on the one hand, the burgeoning literature in both academic and popular media addressing the time famine and, on the other, people's professed experience of what is happening to their time.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rosemary Crompton, Fiona Harris British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 118-136.
Explanations of the persisting differences in the structure of men's and women's employment have long been debated in the social sciences. Sociological explanations have tended to stress the continuing significance of structural constraints on women's employment opportunities, which persist, despite the removal of formal barriers. Neo-classical economics, in contrast, have emphasized the significance of individual choice, an argument which has been recently endorsed by Hakim who suggests that patterns of occupational segregation reflect the outcome of the choices made by different 'types' of women. In this paper, a previous debate relating to the explanatory utility of men's 'orientations to work' is used to argue that employment structures are the outcome of both choice and constraint, and that this is also the case for women. The argument is illustrated with evidence from cross-nationally comparative biographical interviews carried out in five countries
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Susan McRae British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 384-405.
The paper examines the relationships between population and household change, on the one hand, and labour market/employment change, on the other, and considers how these relationships have contributed to the growth of inequality. The perspective of the paper is sociological, although much of the work done in these areas has been carried out by demographers and economists. Areas where sociological research remains to be done are highlighted. Developments in patters of fertility and in households are linked to the growth of individualism and to changes in the labour market, and shown to be implicated jointly in the marked growth of inequality in Britain. The paper argues that future research must link households and labour markets, and work towards understanding emerging new relationships between working and private lives, between living arrangements and labour supply, and between individual freedom and social integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wendy Bottero, Sarah Irwin British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 261-280.
This paper explores recent arguments about the marketization of female labor, in the context of a wider analysis of the role of concepts like 'the market' and 'individualization' in sociological accounts of change in employment relations. It will be argued that within sociology there has been a tendency for rapid, large-scale changes in employment relations to be characterized as the breakdown of social influences or structures and as the emergence of atomized, individuated market forces. In the most recent models, change in the nature of gendered positions within employment are presented in terms of a decline of social structuring and social constraint. These emergent accounts hold similarities to classical economics, and to Marx's and Weber's accounts of employment, which also characterized new forms of employment relations in terms of the emptying of their social content and their repl placement by market forms. An alternative, moral economy, perspective which foregrounds the continued significance of social relations in the structuring of employment and employment change is offered. The argument is developed through an analysis of gendered patterns of employment and change in family form.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bill Martin, Judy Wajcman British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 4. P. 559-578.
This article examines the objective and subjective aspects of managerial careers in six large firms that have experienced organizational restructuring. We begin by assessing the dominant models of change in career structures, particularly those which emphasize the portfolio route to career success. Although elements of the bureaucratic career remain, we find some evidence of the shift predicted by these models amongst the younger generation of managers. However, it is striking that not all young managers are able to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the new career model. Indeed, cultural capital has an increasing impact on career achievement. Younger managers are responding by reorienting away from organizational loyalty towards a concern with individual career projects.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Iganski, Geoff Payne British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 195-215.
The consequences of major changes in employment, due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of the service sector, have not been well-documented, nor theorized, in the sociology of ethnic relations, even in recent studies. By adapting data from the Labour Force Survey and the Census, the gap is addressed with a detailed account of 3 main minority ethnic groups, and a separate analysis of male and female employment. It is demonstrated that, contrary to assumptions that members of the minority ethnic groups suffered most from de-industrialization, they actually did rather well, and in some cases did better than the majority population. These findings are reconceptualized as collective social mobility, as part of a review of a number of conceptual frameworks in the light of the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sawako Shirahase British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 391-408.
This paper discusses whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into Japan's labor market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husbands' class positions. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husbands'. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labor market but also to the division of labor by gender within the household.