Всего статей в данном разделе : 382
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Cecilia L. Ridgeway American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 218-235.
How can we explain the persistence of gender hierarchy over transformations in its socioeconomic base? Part of the answer lies in the mediation of gender inequality by taken-for-granted interactional processes that rewrite inequality into new institutional arrangements. The problems of interacting cause actors to automatically sex-categorize others and, thus, to cue gender stereotypes that have various effects on interactional outcomes, usually by modifying the performance of other, more salient identities. Because changes in the status dimension of gender stereotypes lag behind changes in resource inequalities, interactional status processes can reestablish gender inequalities in new structural forms. Interactional sex categorization also biases the choice of comparison others, causing men and women to judge differently the rewards available to them. Operating in workplace relations, these processes conserve inequality by driving the gender-labeling of jobs, constructing people as gender-interested actors, contributing to employers' discriminatory preferences, and mediating men's and women's perceptions of alternatives and their willingness to settle for given job outcomes.
IQ как прогноз жизненной карьеры [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-04-2007Анна Фирковская-Манкевич Социология: теория, методы, маркетинг. 2005. No. 2. P. 5-23.
Статья посвящена весьма важному и вместе с тем спорному феномену влияния интеллектуального потенциала человека (измеряемого стандартизированными тестами) в динамическом соотношении социальным происхождением респондентов и их карьерой и социальным статусом во взрослой жизни. Анализ основан на панельном исследовании, проводившемся в Варшаве в течение почти 25 лет, начиная с 1974-го (когда были проанализированы IQ и социокультурные показатели 14 тыс. подростков г. Варшавы) и заканчивая 1995–1999 годами (когда изучались жизненные карьеры и актуальный интеллектуальный потенциал тех же людей уже в 30-летнм возрасте в сопоставлении с их исходным IQ в подростковом возрасте). Результаты анализа показывают, что IQ оказался довольно адекватным прогнозным показателем жизненной карьеры, понимаемой в терминах объективных показателей социального статуса. Однако роль IQ не следует переоценивать, поскольку имеются и другие коэффициенты, которые сложнее измерить эмпирически, например, происхождение или личностные характеристики, также влияющие на жизненную карьеру.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Ted Mouw American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 730-753.
The spatial mismatch hypothesis argues that residential segregation and job decentralization combine to adversely affect the employment opportunities of minorities. While employment is increasingly located outside of central cities, residential segregation prevents minorities from moving closer to suburban jobs. Although this hypothesis has intuitive appeal, there is little consensus regarding its empirical validity. This study (1) constructs detailed geographic measures of changes in employment opportunities, (2) estimates a fixed-effects model of changes in the unemployment rate over time, and (3) accounts for spatial correlation in the error term. Neighborhood-level employment data from 1980 and 1990 are used to measure changes in the distance to jobs from census tracts in the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas. In both cities, the decentralization of employment and the loss of manufacturing jobs resulted in substantial changes in the spatial distribution of employment. The empirical results indicate that a decline in the spatial proximity to employment is associated with an increase in the unemployment rate for blacks.
Kapitalismus ohne Arbeit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2007Ulrich Beck Der Spiegel. 1996. No. 20. P. 140-146.
Статья немецкого социолога Ульриха Бека о будущем труда, которое видится ему как "безработный капитализм".
Knowledge and the enterprising self: Workplace refugees navigating entrepreneurial discourses [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Studies in the Education of Adults. 2008. Vol. 33. No. 2. P. 127-134.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2007. Vol. 20. No. 4. P. 509-524.
Purpose - This paper seeks to examine the identities and subjectivities of independent knowledge workers who contract their services to organizations. Two questions are addressed: who are these enterprising knowledge workers, in terms of how they understand and position themselves relative to organizational structures, practices and social relations in their work as '' inside outsiders ''? How do they recognize their own constitution, and what spaces for agency are possible? Design/methodology/approach - The discussion draws upon a qualitative study of 18 self-employed consultants in organizational change, analysing their articulations as ongoing constitutions within prescribed discourses and cultural technologies. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were analysed inductively to determine themes and silences among the narratives. Findings - The argument shows how these subjectivities emerge from in-between spaces, both inside and outside organizations. As they negotiate these spaces, they exercise agency by resisting control while building connections. These articulations are described as '' network identities ''. Originality/value - The paper concludes with implications for organizations employing or contracting with such individuals. Suggestions for managers involve enabling more project structures, negotiating boundaries and purposes more clearly, providing more flexible conditions and facilitating more integration of these knowledge workers with other employees before, during and following innovative project activity.
Labor Pains: Change in Organizational Models and Employee Turnover in Young, High-Tech Firms [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004James N. Baron, Michael T. Hannan, Diane Burton American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 960-1012.
Organizational theories, especially ecological perspectives, emphasize the disruptive effects of change. However, the mechanisms producing these effects are seldom examined explicitly. This article examines one such mechanism employee turnover. Analyzing a sample of high-technology start-ups, we show that changes in the employment models or blueprints embraced by organizational leaders increase turnover, which in turn adversely affects subsequent organizational performance. Turnover associated with organizational change appears to be concentrated among the most senior employees, suggesting "old guard disenchantment" as the primary cause. The results are consistent with the claim of neoinstitutionalist scholars that founders impose cultural blueprints on nascent organizations and with the claim of organizational ecologists that altering such blueprints is disruptive and destabilizing.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Studies in Continuing Education. 2008. Vol. 26. No. 2. P. 229-241.
Portfolio work has become recognized as a significant if under-researched form of work emerging in changing work structures. This article presents findings of a qualitative study of nurses and adult educators who function as 'portfolio professionals', in that they contract their services to multiple employers and organizations. Proceeding from interpretive analysis of their narratives, the focus here is their learning processes, particularly in relation to innovation. It is argued that they must learn how to perform innovative work while learning and acting within innovative work. Three learning/acting processes are identified: discerning and rendering something that others understand to be innovative, mobilizing others' activities around the innovation, and anchoring or integrating the innovation within existing systems. These processes inevitably entwine portfolio professionals' identities (as innovators) and their knowledge (as innovative models). Thus they are in danger of becoming fixed or anchored along with an innovation, and an important contrary movement is slipping away and beyond the very anchors they work to render.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wendy Bottero, Sarah Irwin British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 261-280.
This paper explores recent arguments about the marketization of female labor, in the context of a wider analysis of the role of concepts like 'the market' and 'individualization' in sociological accounts of change in employment relations. It will be argued that within sociology there has been a tendency for rapid, large-scale changes in employment relations to be characterized as the breakdown of social influences or structures and as the emergence of atomized, individuated market forces. In the most recent models, change in the nature of gendered positions within employment are presented in terms of a decline of social structuring and social constraint. These emergent accounts hold similarities to classical economics, and to Marx's and Weber's accounts of employment, which also characterized new forms of employment relations in terms of the emptying of their social content and their repl placement by market forms. An alternative, moral economy, perspective which foregrounds the continued significance of social relations in the structuring of employment and employment change is offered. The argument is developed through an analysis of gendered patterns of employment and change in family form.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bill Martin, Judy Wajcman British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 4. P. 559-578.
This article examines the objective and subjective aspects of managerial careers in six large firms that have experienced organizational restructuring. We begin by assessing the dominant models of change in career structures, particularly those which emphasize the portfolio route to career success. Although elements of the bureaucratic career remain, we find some evidence of the shift predicted by these models amongst the younger generation of managers. However, it is striking that not all young managers are able to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the new career model. Indeed, cultural capital has an increasing impact on career achievement. Younger managers are responding by reorienting away from organizational loyalty towards a concern with individual career projects.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Trond Petersen, Ishak Saporta, Marc-David L. Seidel American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 3. P. 763-816.
This study focuses on the impact of sex, race, and social networks, to analyze the hiring process in a midsized high-technology organization, using information on all 35,229 applicants in a 10-year period (1985 94). For gender, the process is entirely meritocratic: age and education account for all sex differences. But even without taking into account the two meritocratic variables, there are small if no differences between men and women at all stages in the hiring process. For ethnic minorities, the process is partly meritocratic but partly reliant upon social networks. Once referral method is taken into account, all race effects disappear. In hiring, ethnic minorities are thus disadvantaged in the processes that take place before the organization is contacted. They lack access to or utilize less well the social networks that lead to high success in getting hired.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-09-2003Roger Davidson Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society). 1995. Vol. Vol. 158. No. 1.. P. pp. 165-173.
This paper explores some of the social and economic forces shaping the development of official labour statistics in Britain a century ago. It examines the competing fears and ideologies that fuelled the demand for intelligence about the labour market and the major constraints on its provision, such as Treasury control, industrial resistance and the lack of co-ordination between the statistical branches of government. The broader impact of official labour statistics on social politics is discussed in both a British and an international context, with particular reference to the problems of industrial unrest, unemployment and low income destitution. The paper uses a historical perspective to demonstrate the continuing significance of past investigations to British labour statistics.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Damian Grimshaw, Kevin G. Ward, Jill Rubery Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 25-54.
This paper explores changes in employment policies and practices that are typically associated with the classical model of the internal labour market. Drawing on documentary information and interviews with managers in four large organisations in the UK, the evidence suggests that many of the traditional pillars of the internal labour market have been dismantled. New policies around training, recruitment, pay, job security and career progression have been introduced in response to pressures and opportunities for change, both internal and external to the organisation. Changes in the external labour market involve a shift in the balance of power between labour and capital, coupled with a weakening of the mechanisms which coordinate and regulate labour market exchange. Within the organisation, there are a range of pressures to transform production, or service delivery, including the restructuring of traditional forms of work organisation, the extension of working-time and changes in organisational structure. This paper analyses evidence of new employer-led market solutions to this range of conflicting pressures. The aim is to highlight the tendency for contradictory outcomes as new policies capitalise on changing external conditions, but at the expense of meeting organisational demands. Also, new policies implemented by individual employers may be unsustainable where, on aggregate, they fail to develop workforce skills or to fulfil career expectations.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2006Michael Gold, Janet Fraser Work, Employment, and Society. 2004. Vol. 15. No. 12. P. 679-697.
Recent literature has begun to disaggregate groups of the 'self-employed without employees' to examine in greater detail what determines their working conditions. This article continues this trend by presenting the findings of a survey of professional translators and discussing their status as 'homeworkers', 'teleworkers', and 'portfolio workers'. It reveals that freelance translators enjoy higher levels of autonomy and control over their working conditions than other comparable self-employed groups. This is largely because the nature of their expertise and their relationship with clients create inelasticities in the supply of their skills. The more successful are then able to use their market position to exert substantial control over areas like pay and deadlines. In addition, the lack of a traditional career structure means that many translators have actively chosen freelance work and that even those who were originally forced into it would not now take an in-house job. The article concludes that labour market characteristics are a key factor in determining differences in working conditions between various groups of 'portfolio workers'.
Producing Monthly Estimates of Unemployment of Employment Accounting to the International Labour Definition [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003David Steel Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society). 1997. Vol. Vol. 160. No. 1. . P. pp. 5-46..
Monthly unemployment statistics are available in Britain from a monthly count of the number of people claiming unemployment-related benefits. There has been considerable debate on the appropriateness of this measure. Unemployment and employment statistics are available quarterly from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), using International Labour Office (ILO) definitions. In this paper various options for producing monthly unemployment estimates according to the ILO definition are examined. Methods considered are a monthly LFS, calculating rolling averages from the quarterly LFS, and methods which combine LFS and claimant count data. It is proposed that a monthly LFS of 60 000 households be introduced which can produce monthly estimates of total unemployment and more detailed estimates quarterly. Such a survey would also fill an important gap by providing monthly employment statistics which are needed to provide a complete picture of the labour market.