Всего статей в данном разделе : 382
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore CEP Occasional Papers. 1996. No. 11.
It is not only in Japan that traditional employment systems are being called into question. It has become conventional wisdom on the OECD conference circuit that we are entering a new era of intensified global competition in which only the most “flexible” firms can survive. “Flexibility” and the elimination of rigidities, particularly labour market rigidities, became, in the mid-1980s, the keynote of prescriptions both for lack of competitiveness and for rising unemployment. Even earlier reservations about the desirability of preserving a “core” of stable, longserving, committed workers, differentiated from a flexible “periphery” have given way to prescriptions for wholesale “down-sizing”. There is a flexibility trade off. Concern with labour market flexibility -- especially managers’ ability to hire and fire at will -- is strengthened in the Anglo- Saxon economies by the inflexibility of the financial markets they face. Japanese firms, being more insulated from the short-term demands of shareholders, have hitherto been able to afford more “rigid” employment systems from which they gain the advantage of employee commitment and cooperative and flexible attitudes to work. But today the competitiveness/flexibility concern grows in Japan too. The lifetime employment/seniority-constrained pay and promotion system is under attack. Advocacy of change is common; assertions that wholesale change has already taken place almost equally common. The reasons are to be found partly in the objective situations of many firms after four years of recession, partly in a loss of self-confidence and a “resurgence of the American model”. Actual change seems in fact to be marginal, but there are a number of grounds for expecting change in the future: value change -- greater affluence, diminished work ethic, and diminished egalitarianism; the possible resurgence of shareholder power; the declining influence of unions; the declining “intellectual quality” of blue-collar and routine white-collar workers; increased inter-firm competition and the reduction of industry cartel understandings; slower growth; low-wage competition, particularly in future from China, and the “hollowing-out” response thereto. Those who have a stake in Japan’s “employee sovereignty” jimponshugi, and would be reluctant to see it slide into just another version of “shareholder sovereignty” Anglo-Saxon capitalism, might be expected to be proposing legislation to bring company law in line with current Japanese reality. Noone seems to be doing so.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Webster Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 114-128.
This paper argues that British welfare to work policies are inadequate, given the geographical concentration of worklessness in northern regions and in cities and former coalfields. While unemployment has been converging geographically, inactivity has not. All the welfare to work target groups - youth unemployed, long-term unemployed, lone parents, the long-term sick, and partners of the unemployed - have closely similar geographical distributions. Official arguments that there are adequate job vacancies everywhere are shown to be flawed. The geography of worklessness is largely explained by the weakness of adjustment through migration and commuting to the loss of jobs in manufacturing and mining, the cities being particularly affected by urban-rural manufacturing shift. Policy needs to promote more relevant employment in high unemployment areas, through increased spending on derelict land reclamation and on transport and other infrastructure. The case for more supportive policies towards manufacturing should also be considered.
The impact of the regulation of low wages on inequality and labour-market adjustment: A comparative analysis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Bazen Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 57-69.
In all continental European countries there exist non-market mechanisms that determine or regulate wage rates for the low-paid. The experience of three countries that have national minimum wages - France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - and three where low wage rates are determined through widespread collective bargaining - Germany, Italy, and Denmark, are considered. It is found that overall there is less inequality (both wage and income) and less poverty than in the UK and the US, where low wages are less regulated. Furthermore, patterns of labor-market adjustment - employment, unemployment, and gross job flows - vary greatly, suggesting that there is no one-to-one mapping between the presence of mechanisms to regulate low wages and labor-market performance. Furthermore, wage shares have been falling since the early 1980s. It is therefore difficult to attribute high and persistent rates of unemployment found in certain countries to the existence of mechanisms to regulate low wages.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Flora Gill Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 725-743.
Economics views work as merely providing purchasing power. Many economists agree that there is a great deal more to work, but they nonetheless feel comfortable with this narrow description, believing that important aspects of work that they have left out of consideration have no impact on the validity of their analytical conclusions and policy propositions. This paper argues that if economics is to shed light on urgent socio-economic issues and suggest appropriate remedies, labor economics must be expanded to encompass work as a creative endeavor - an escape from social isolation - and to acknowledge the analytical implications of the workplace as a social microcosm, which is, inter alia, governed by power relationships. This paper presents lessons from an investigation of the meaning of work in a number of cognate disciplines and outlines their implication for labor economics and for policy seeking to advance the cause of social justice.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Nickell, Glenda Quintini Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 202-220.
Both the overall macroeconomic performance of the UK labour market since 1997 are considered, as well as some of the underlying micro problems, particularly those facing unskilled workers. On the macro front, unemployment has declined to its lowest level for a generation without excessive inflationary pressure. The main factors behind this decline in equilibrium unemployment stem from actions taken by the previous government. Changes introduced in the labour market since 1997 are likely to have only small effects on equilibrium unemployment. Underlying this favourable aggregate labour-market performance are serious problems facing unskilled men who have seen dramatic increases in their unemployment and inactivity rates, concentrated particularly in Wales and the northern regions of Britain. The policy response since 1997 has focused on encouraging the unskilled into work (the New Deal) while simultaneously raising the rewards for working. These polices have had a positive impact on youth employment and have significantly reduced child poverty. So far, however, existing policies do not seem likely to have a serious impact on the high levels of worklessness among unskilled men.
The Return on Women's Human Capital and the Role of Male Attitudes Toward Working Wives: Gender Roles, Work Interruption, and Women's Earnings in Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Hwei-Lin Chuang, Hsih-Yin Lee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 435-.
This study empirically investigates women's work interruption behavior in Taiwan and this behavior's influence on women's earnings. The most striking finding from our analysis of women's work history patterns is that a husband's negative attitude toward a working wife will more greatly discourage his wife from attaching to the labor market than will the presence of young children in the family. Thus, it is critical to educate men to give up their traditional attitudes toward gender roles in order to raise the female labor force participation rate in Taiwan. As to the effect of work interruption on earnings, a depreciation rate of 2.8[percent] is found for women with at least a high-school level of education, while no penalty of foregone experience is shown for less-educated women. Since this depreciation effect may discourage women from re-entering the labor market, government programs encouraging self-employment should be helpful, as self-employed women find it easier to overcome the conflict between family obligations and work needs.
The role of the state in skill formation: evidence from the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Francis Green, David Ashton, Donna James Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 82-96.
We propose a new interpretation of the role of the state in skill formation, with reference to three East Asian newly industrialized economies. Rather than see the state as simply redressing externalities, we interpret the state as matching the supply and demand for skills in a rapidly growing economy. This role can be superior to a strategy of allowing education and training institutions to be driven by autonomous processes. The role is most likely to be observed in developmental states. We examine the political mechanisms that have helped to ensure that educational and training policy formation are subordinated to the imperatives of economic growth. While the East Asian model cannot be imported wholesale to western countries such as Britain in different historical circumstances, the example lends credence to the value of the state taking a strategic approach to education and training policy.
The Structure of Disadvantage: Individual and Occupational Determinants of the Black-White Wage Gap [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Eric Grodsky, Devah Pager American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 4. P. 542-567.
This study is motivated by the idea that the racial gap in earnings is generated not only by individual differences but also by systematic variation in the occupational structure that attenuates or exacerbates the effects of race. Using data from the 1990 census and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a hierarchical linear modeling approach is employed that allows the simultaneous exploration of the mechanisms of income inequality operating both within and between occupations. Among private-sector employees, striking evidence shows that racial disparities increase in both absolute and percentage terms as one moves up the occupational earnings hierarchy. The association between average occupational earnings and within-occupation racial disadvantage reveals an overlooked source of racial earnings inequality which constrains the opportunities available to upwardly mobile black men in the private sector. This association cannot be explained by measured individual characteristics, or by the status, demographic composition, or skill demands of occupations. In the public sector, on the other hand, racial inequality in earnings is not systematically associated with average occupational earnings, and is instead more closely tied to individual human capital and occupational placement. The implications of these results are considered and directions for future research are suggested.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Robert M. Blackburn, Bradley Brooks, Jennifer Jarman Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 511-538.
This article presents a new approach to measuring the most important dimension of gender segregation the vertical dimension in quantitative survey data. This, in turn, allows for a reassessment of the view that high levels of gender segregation are synonymous with high levels of social inequality. In order to do this, the article also draws upon significant conceptual developments. Segregation as it is commonly understood is named as overall segregation, and is the resultant of two components, horizontal and vertical segregation, representing difference and inequality separately. This provides a clear approach to measurement. The argument is developed with a case study of the British labour force. The pattern of segregation, in terms of its overall level and its components, varies considerably across sections of the labour force. In terms of inequality, the vertical components measured indicate that British women working full-time are more advantaged than we would expect, and that women working in part-time manual occupations, though facing the greatest relative disadvantage in terms of pay, are actually slightly advantaged over men working in manual occupations in terms of social stratification. Although overall segregation has remained relatively unchanged over the five year period from 1991 to 1996, there have been some significant changes to its components within the various sections of the employed British labour force in that time. By looking at the various sections of the labour force, relative to the labour force as a whole, we can achieve a better understanding of how segregation operates with respect to gender inequalities.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Work, Employment, and Society. 2002. Vol. 16. No. 4. P. 703-723 .
The growth of self-employed enterprise and the supposed ascendancy of the enterprising self' are commonly associated with the forces of flexibilization and individualization in contemporary work arrangements. What is driving these forces and their effects can be understood, in part, by examining what psychoanalytic theory would name desire. The focus here is upon the dynamics of desire among individuals who leave jobs to enter the growing ranks of the self-employed. Drawing from findings of a qualitative study of such new women entrepreneurs across Canada, changing concepts of the enterprising self are explored with specific attention to the relations between their desires and their conception of work. This article addresses three questions in particular: How is desire enmeshed in the development of enterprising selves? How do women come to desire work through self-employed enterprise, often entailing personal and economic pain? Do these desires configure possibilities for new alternatives in enterprise? The study findings suggest not only that contradictory desires are closely integrated with identity in the transition to enterprise, but also that some women's desires appear to form resistance to aspects of conventional models of business development. Through analysis informed by psychoanalytic theories of desire, these impulses are named 'transgressive desires' and their importance is demonstrated in their links to the new models of entrepreneurism that seem to be appearing among these women's enterprises.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-08-2004Владимир Самуилович Магун Soviet Sociology. 1985. No. 4. P. 26-38.
Статья является переводом статьи Магун В.С. Два типа соотношения продуктивности труда и удовлетворенность работой // Социологические исследования. 1983. № 4. С.64-71. В статье отмечается, что трудовая деятельность обычно рассматривается с точки зрения социально-экономической полезности, фиксируемой в показателях продуктивности и с точки зрения индивидуальной значимости, измеряемой показателями удовлетворенности работой. Чем лучше человек работает, тем в большей степени удовлетворены его потребности. Данные исследования показали, что с ростом продуктивности у рабочего главным образом снижается удовлетворенность нормированием труда, его санитарно-гигиеническими условиями, состоянием оборудования, ритмичностью труда, т.е. теми обстоятельствами, ответственность за которые несут другие участники трудового процесса. Более продуктивные и ориентированные на заработок рабочие хотели бы повышать продуктивность ценой меньшего утомления, для чего необходимо улучшить условия труда.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Charles N. Halaby American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 251-278.
This paper develops a framework for conceptualizing preferences for different job properties in terms of a tradeoff between risk and return in the pursuit of economic welfare. Following portfolio theory, job properties are viewed as having mean-variance properties with respect to the distribution of rates of growth in economic welfare. Actors may pursue a high-return, high-risk "entrepreneurial" strategy, or a low-return, low-risk "bureaucratic" strategy. An actor's choice is determined by "entrepreneurial ability" and risk preferences, which in turn are rooted in the major dimensions of family and schooling background, cognitive ability, and gender. This theory is tested by anchoring it in the Wisconsin status attainment model and then fitting rank-ordered logit models to data from the 1957 and 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey. The findings support the theory: Actors who are "advantaged" with respect to family background, schooling, cognitive ability, and gender express a preference for "entrepreneurial" as opposed to "bureaucratic" job properties. Findings also highlight the strong parallels between the process generating adult job values and the process of socioeconomic achievement itself.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Steven P. Vallas American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 223-250.
Using data from a comparative, multisite ethnography, this paper identifies some of the social and organizational conditions that limited the impact of workplace transformation at four manufacturing plants during the 1990s. Although these plants adopted an array of new work practices, most achieved only limited gains and were generally unable to transcend the traditional boundary between salaried and hourly employees. A key reason lay in the managerial orientation toward production that was brought to bear on the process of workplace change. This orientation, which placed substantial emphasis on scientific and technical rationality, limited the firm's ability to provide an overarching normative or moral framework within which workplace change might unfold, leaving team systems vulnerable to anomic tendencies, to status distinctions among hourly employees, and to other sources of instability. The predominance of a technical, expert-centered orientation toward production also introduced salient contradictions into the new work regimes, pitting a logic of standardization against managerial efforts to cultivate a logic of participation. These findings suggest that successful implementation of workplace change may depend on the ability of corporate executives to demonstrate the very capacity for flexibility that they often demand of their hourly employees.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sawako Shirahase British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 391-408.
This paper discusses whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into Japan's labor market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husbands' class positions. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husbands'. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labor market but also to the division of labor by gender within the household.
Women in the Indian Informal Economy: Collective Strategies for Work Life Improvement and Development [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Hill Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 443-464.
Strategies for work life reform amongst informal sector workers in developing countries are currently dominated by resource-based approaches such as the micro-credit movement. This policy framework is predicated upon certain liberal assumptions about individual human action and the relationship between human behaviour and economic development. This article contends that these assumptions are inappropriate when applied to informal sector workers and their economic activities. A focus on the intersubjective conditions of work and economic development, based on the work of Axel Honneth (1995), provides an alternative way of conceptualising the work life experience of marginalised workers and appropriate interventions for economic and social security. An example of a collective strategy implemented by the Self Employed Womens' Association (SEWA) in India, demonstrates the important role that interpersonal recognition plays in activating worker identity and agency to achieve development. The success of SEWA's methodology has implications for how we think about the meaning of development and work life reform in poor countries, suggesting that interventions for economic and social security must engage workers at both the economic and cultural levels at which insecurity, moral injury and social exclusion are produced.