Всего статей в данном разделе : 298
«Новые капиталисты»: кто они? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-03-2005Наталья Евгеньевна Тихонова Общественные науки и современность. 2005. № 2. С. 29-39.
На основе эмпирического материала автор пытается дать ответ на вопрос, кто стал «новым капиталистом» в новой социальной структуре российского общества. Выделяются 8 видов ресурсов, которыми обладают россияне (экономический, квалификационный, социальный, властный, культурный, личностный, символический, биологический), и условия, в которых эти ресурсы превращаются в капитал. Показано, что из перечисленных ресурсов капиталом могут стать 5 первых. Отмечено, что обладание экономическим капиталом в структуре новых капиталистов невелико (всего 7%); значительно большая доля отводится конвертирующим свои властный, квалификационный, социальный, культурный ресурсы. Выводится интегральный показатель ресурсообеспеченности. Отмечается, что все виды рассматриваемых капиталов конвертируются в экономический и при этом могут существовать в такой комбинации, что при наличии соответствующего объема неэкономических ресурсов человек может принадлежать к высшим слоям общества без наличия у него экономического капитала, не занимаясь предпринимательством. Исследование также показало, что различные виды ресурсов именно в качестве капитала в разных комбинациях концентрируются у одних и тех же людей, представляющих особую группу – «новых капиталистов». При этом речь идет не просто о сосуществовании у этой группы разных видов ресурсов, об их суммировании, а об умножении совокупной эффективности за счет различных форм их взаимодействия. Также отмечается, что социальное неравенство в современном российском обществе – логическое следствие наличия у разных групп населения на момент начала реформ 1990-х гг. различного объема ресурсов, во многом накопившихся на протяжении поколений.
Age Stratification and Class Formation: A Longitudinal Study of the Social Mobility of Young Men and Women, 1971-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 18-10-2004Muriel Egerton, Mike Savage Work, Employment, and Society. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 23-49.
This paper examines the relationship between processes of demographic class formation, gender inequality and age stratification in England and Wales between 1971 and 1991. Existing research shows that the complex process of class restructuring which took place in these years is linked to considerable changes in the position of women, especially related to their growing numbers in professional and managerial occupations. We seek to show that changing processes of age stratification were also related to the remaking of class and gender relations in these years. Data from the Longitudinal Study (approximately 193,000 men and 203,000 women aged 2357 in two age cohorts; 1971 and 1981), Samples of Anonymised Records (approximately 121,500 men and 126,000 women aged 2357 in 1991), General Household Survey 19831992 (32,609 men and 16,191 women aged 2357 in fulltime employment) and from the National Child Development Study, 1981 and 1991 (2205 men and 887 women aged 23 and 33, in fulltime employment) were used to examine the movement of individuals through changing opportunity structures over the twenty-year period. We found a distinct hardening of the relationship between age and class in these two decades for men, with a marked increase in social polarisation between young men and older men, but for women this relationship was very different, with young women seeing considerable evidence of an improvement in their fortunes.
Bibliography on Social Class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-02-2003Albert Benschop
Библиография по теме "Социальный класс", разработанная Альбертом Беншопом, включает список литературы из 2130 наименований на всех европейских языках по 2001 г. включительно. Ряд книг и статей библиографии имеют электронные аналоги.
Cambridge Scale Scores for CASOC Groupings; Cambridge Scale Scores for Official Classifications 1961-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-05-2003Ken Prandy Working Papers (Cambridge Studies in Social Research). 2002.
Сайт содержит работы К. Пранди - специалиста по измерению социального неравенства, работающего в рамках кембриджской и оксфордской систем классификации социально-профессиональных групп. Другие препринты Социологической группы социальных исследований Кебриджского университета доступны только по платному заказу.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003Simon Commander, Andrei Tolstopiatenko, Ruslan Yemtsov William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1997. No. 42.
Among the many popular images of the Russian transition, none cast a more dramatic shadow than the apparently rapid transformation of an entire system from one characterised by low inequality and largely absent poverty to one marked by extremes of deprivation and prosperity. Once hailed as a salutary contrast to the extremes of well-being so characteristic of many economies at comparable levels of income, Russia now exhibits the tell-tale inequities that mark, for example, many Latin American economies. How accurate is this representation, both in its depiction of the situation pre-transition, let alone the consequences of recent changes? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions in as precise a manner as possible. The paper is organised as follows. Section 1 gives a brief description of the datasets — primarily the six rounds of a large household survey, the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) - that we use in this paper. Section 2 sets out the initial conditions that obtained in the Former Soviet Union and Russia and the picture that emerges from use of official statistics. These are shown to be seriously misleading in a number of key respects. Section 3 deals with the channels of redistribution that are likely to be present in the transition and surveys the evidence available from both aggregate data and firm-level information. In Section 4 the key channels are formalised in a two sector model of transition in which the reallocation of labour and capital across state and private sectors is seen as the determining feature of transition. The model is primarily concerned with labour allocation and hence can provide the paths of inequality and poverty over the transition primarily associated with labour income. Some simulations are presented which provide a set of simple benchmarks for understanding the size of likely effects from both within-sector inequality as also through restructuring and closure probabilities for state firms and the relative productivity of both state and private sectors. Section 5 turns to the empirical findings that emerge from a detailed look at the household surveys, including the factors driving the changes in inequality. Section 6 looks at how stable the transitions over the income distribution have been and, in particular, takes a closer look at groups of stable winners and losers. Section 7 turns to the measurement of poverty and the results that emerge from the household survey regarding both expenditure and income measured poverty. We also look at the characteristics of the poor. Section 8 concludes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Adam Swift British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 663-679.
Abstract: Distinguishing between an explanatory and a normative interest in social stratification, this paper considers the relation between class analysis and the value of equality. Starting from the familiar distinction between (in)equality of position and (in)equality of opportunity, and noting the extent to which mobility research focuses on the latter, it suggests that class positions can themselves be characterized in terms of the opportunities they yield to those occupymg them. This enables the clear identification of the kinds of inequality that are and are not addressed by research findings presented in terms of class categories, and odds ratios. The significance of those findings from a normative perspective is then discussed, and their limitations are emphasized - though the paper also explains in what ways they are indeed of normative relevance.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-03-2003Edna Bonacich Insurgent Sociologist. 1980. X:2. P. 9-24.
Предлагается дополнить традиционный подход к изучению расовой стратификации на основе аскриптивных (примордиальных) характеристик человека, рассмотрением данного неравенства с точки зрения его обусловленности классовыми отношениями. Это позволит, по мнению автора, не только глубже понять исследуемую реальность, но и разработать инструментарий к ее изменению. Описываются преимущества классового анализа при изучении этносоциальной и расовой стратификации, предлагаются возможные направления синтеза теорий расового и этнического неравенства и классового подхода.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 6. P. 1559-1571.
In commenting on Aage Sorensen's "Toward a Sounder Basis for Class Analysis," Wright argues against the ideas that exploitation can be fruitfully defined in terms of rent-generating processes or that a class analysis built on such foundations will be satisfactory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen, John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 1-27.
Saunders' (1996, 1997) recent work claiming that contemporary British society is to a large extent 'meritocratic' is criticized on conceptual and technical grounds. A reanalysis of the National Child Development Study data-set, used by Saunders, is presented. This reveals that while merit, defined in terms of ability and effort, does play a part in determining individuals' class destinations, the effect of class origins remains strong. Children of less advantaged origins need to show substantially more merit than children from more advantaged origins in order to gain similar class positions. These differences in findings to some extent arise from the correction of biases introduced by Saunders; but there are also features of his own results, consistent with those reported in the reanalysis, which he appears to not fully have appreciated.
Class structure in a deeply divided society: Class and ethnic inequality in Israel, 1974-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Meir Yaish British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 409-439.
Despite the fact that in many societies ethnicity plays an important role in stratification processes, a common view held by students of stratification argues that the role of ascriptive criteria in stratification processes is diminishing, and that the main axis of the modern stratification system is rooted in the division of labor in the marketplace. Despite this, most Israeli sociologists have taken the ethnic and national cleavages to be the main axes of stratification in Israel. This paper utilizes the 1974 and 1991 mobility surveys in Israel to examine changes over time in the association between ethnicity/nationality and class position in the Israeli stratification structure. It also examines the extent to which inequality of opportunity within the Israel class structure is affected by ethnicity/nationality. Here it is found that the ethnic/national cleavage in Israel appears to have played a less important role over time in the allocation of Israeli men to class positions.
Comparing Social Stratification Schemas: CAMSIS, CSP-CH, Goldthorpe, ISCO-88, Treiman, and Wright [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003Manfred Max Bergman, Dominique Joye
The purpose of this article is to inform researchers in the social and political sciences about the main social stratification scales in use today. Six stratification schemas are described in this text: the Cambridge Social Interaction and Stratification Scale (CAMSIS), Swiss Socio-Professional Categories (CSP-CH), John H. Goldthorpes class schema, the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88), Donald J. Treimans prestige scale, and Erik Olin Wrights class structure. Their theoretical backgrounds and assumptions are discussed, as are their structural and methodological aspects. General problems of contemporary stratification research are covered, and suggestions for future research directions within this field are proposed.
Curriculum, Credentials, and the Middle Class: A Case Study of a Nineteenth Century High School [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003David F. Labaree Sociology of Education. 1986. Vol. 59. No. 1. P. 42-57.
This historical case study of a prominent nineteenth-century high school analyzes one example of the development of the hegemonic curriculum. This developmental process hinged on the complex relationship between the high school and its middle-class constituency, a relationship that was mediated by the market in educational credentials. Shaped by bourgeois ideological principles (merit, self-discipline, and utility), the curriculum of the mid-1800s provided the school's middle-class constituents with a valuable form of symbolic wealth: i.e. educational credentials. However, by the 1880s the market in educational credentials changed. Alternative suppliers appeared on the scene, and the middle class began looking beyond a high school diploma to the acquisition of professional credentials. This market pressure forced the high school to revamp its course of study. What emerged was a version of the modern hegemonic curriculum, in which knowledge is stratified, academic, and appropriated through individual competition.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-12-2003Francois Bourguignon Econometrica. 1979. Vol. 47. No. 4. P. 901-920.
A decomposable inequality measure is defined as a measure such that the total inequality of a population can be broken down into a weighted average of the inequality existing within subgroups of the population and the inequality existing between them. Thus, decomposable measures differ only by the weights given to the inequality within the subgroups of the population. It is proven that the only zero-homogeneous "income-weighted" decomposable measure is Theil's coefficient (T) and that the only zero-homogeneous "population-weighted" decomposable measure is the logarithm of the arithmetic mean over the geometric mean (L). More generally, it is proved that T and L are the only decomposable inequality measures such that the weight of the "within-components" in the total inequality of a partitioned population sum to a constant. More general decomposable measures are also analyzed.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002Branko Milanovic, Shlomo Yizhaki Review of Income and Wealth. 2002. Vol. 48. No. 2.
Using the national income/expenditure distribution data from 111 countries, we decompose total inequality between the individuals in the world, by continents and regions. We use Yitzhakis Gini decomposition which allows for an exact breakdown of the Gini. We find t hat Asia is the most heterogeneous continents; between-country inequality is much more important than inequality in incomes within countries. At the other extreme is Latin America where differences between the countries are small, but inequalities within the countries are large. Western Europe/North America is fairly homogeneous both in terms of countries mean incomes and income differences between individuals. If we divided the world population into three groups: The rich (those with incomes greater than Italys mean income), the poor (those with income less than Western countries poverty lie), and the middle class, we find that there are only 11 percent of people who are world middle class; 78 percent are poor, and 11 percent are rich.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-01-2003Lawrence E. Raffalovich
This paper uses annual time-series data on a sample of thirty-nine countries to investigate the impact of inequality on growth over the 1950-1998 period. Our inequality measure is the property-income share of GDP, selected because it is both the means and the motive for investment, the proximate cause of growth in most theories. Cross-national time-series regression analysis of the pooled data finds only limited evidence that inequality increases subsequent growth, and only in a few countries. There is no evidence that this effect can be generalized beyond these few nations. The argument that inequality promotes economic growth remains largely unsupported.