Всего статей в данном разделе : 105
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Philip N. Cohen, Matt L. Huffman American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. . 443-463.
Although abundant evidence documents pay penalties for female-dominated jobs, there is also substantial variation in gender inequality across U.S. metropolitan areas. These lines of research are united by exploring whether occupational gender segregation at the labor market level exacerbates the wage penalty associated with female-dominated jobs, and investigating the association between gender composition and the size of within-job gender gaps. Results show that the penalty accruing to female-dominated jobs is weaker in more integrated labor markets, but only among men, and that labor market integration does not significantly influence the association between the gender composition of jobs and within-job inequality. Further, even women in completely segregated jobs benefit from a context of occupational integration. It is concluded that, although gender devaluation is widespread and systematic, variation in gender composition effects across local contexts is an important dimension of gender inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Cecilia L. Ridgeway American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 218-235.
How can we explain the persistence of gender hierarchy over transformations in its socioeconomic base? Part of the answer lies in the mediation of gender inequality by taken-for-granted interactional processes that rewrite inequality into new institutional arrangements. The problems of interacting cause actors to automatically sex-categorize others and, thus, to cue gender stereotypes that have various effects on interactional outcomes, usually by modifying the performance of other, more salient identities. Because changes in the status dimension of gender stereotypes lag behind changes in resource inequalities, interactional status processes can reestablish gender inequalities in new structural forms. Interactional sex categorization also biases the choice of comparison others, causing men and women to judge differently the rewards available to them. Operating in workplace relations, these processes conserve inequality by driving the gender-labeling of jobs, constructing people as gender-interested actors, contributing to employers' discriminatory preferences, and mediating men's and women's perceptions of alternatives and their willingness to settle for given job outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-09-2003Moon-Kie Jung American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 373-400.
A normative desire for interracialism undergirds and structures the sociology of race. However, focusing almost exclusively on racial divisions and conflicts, the sociology of race rarely subjects interracialism to explicit analysis. One consequence of this somewhat peculiar situation is that interracialism is understood negatively, as deracialization-the removal of racism. Even the few studies that appear to redress this negativity through explicit analysis reproduce it. Prototypically, there has long been a scholarly consensus that Hawaii's interracial working-class movement of the late 1930s and 1940s presupposed deracialization: that a "colour-blind" class ideology, advanced by the left-led International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, effaced racial divisions. Refuting this interpretation, this paper demonstrates that a deracializing class ideology was not straightforwardly adopted by Hawaii's racially divided workers. Instead, a leftist ideology of class served as the initial pivot for an affirmative transformation of race, producing an interracial ideology that rearticulated, rather than disarticulated, race and class. The paper concludes with several implications of reconceptualizing interracialism affirmatively.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wendy Bottero, Sarah Irwin British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 261-280.
This paper explores recent arguments about the marketization of female labor, in the context of a wider analysis of the role of concepts like 'the market' and 'individualization' in sociological accounts of change in employment relations. It will be argued that within sociology there has been a tendency for rapid, large-scale changes in employment relations to be characterized as the breakdown of social influences or structures and as the emergence of atomized, individuated market forces. In the most recent models, change in the nature of gendered positions within employment are presented in terms of a decline of social structuring and social constraint. These emergent accounts hold similarities to classical economics, and to Marx's and Weber's accounts of employment, which also characterized new forms of employment relations in terms of the emptying of their social content and their repl placement by market forms. An alternative, moral economy, perspective which foregrounds the continued significance of social relations in the structuring of employment and employment change is offered. The argument is developed through an analysis of gendered patterns of employment and change in family form.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 97-117.
The present paper offers a replication of an analysis by Sшrensen and Mclanahan (1987) of 1940-1980 USA data on trends in married womens economic dependency, this time using Dutch income data for 1979-1991. The results show that in the Netherlands, as opposed to the USA, a vast majority of the wives are still completely or strongly dependent on their husbands income. Yet, also Dutch wives economic dependency is decreasing at a significant rate. Despite clear life course differences that yet seem to persist, we observe declining levels of dependency within each age group. This declining trend seems to reflect mostly changes in married womens employment status over time. An implication of the reported trend, however, is that it becomes increasingly important to study the influence of the social position of both partners.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sara Arber, Jay Ginn British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 519-539.
This study examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyzes variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using 3 years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-04-2004Светлана Юрьевна Барсукова Рубеж (альманах социальных исследований). 1998. № 12. С. 92-105.
Фокус данной статьи - идеологическое мифотворчество в контексте традиции народной сказки. "Сказка про Золушку" трактуется как сюжетная реализация темы испытания во имя последующего вознаграждения, как "матрица" идеологического мифотворчества по созданию моделей жизненного успеха женщин. В работе анализируется логическая структура трансформации извечного образа Золушки как мифа советского и постсоветского периодов.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-10-2003Dimitris Bourantas, Nancy Papalexandris Journal of Managerial Psychology. 1990. Vol. 5. No. 5.
In order to test some major hypotheses on leadership styles of women managers, empirical research was conducted among subordinates with male and female supervisors in Greek firms. Analysis of results showed that neither leadership styles nor subordinates' satisfaction differed between employees with male and female managers. The conclusions to be drawn from this analysis are that gender should not influence hiring, promotion and delegation decisions, and that women managers should be encouraged to express certain innate qualities which could contribute to the improved co-operation and team spirit within organisations.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Jacqueline M. Hagan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 55-67.
Most research on social networks and immigrant incorporation focuses on the short-term and positive functions of networks, neglecting changes in networks over time. Author present a dynamic and variable portrayal of networks to demonstrate how they gradually assume different forms and functions for women and for men that differentially affect settlement outcomes, particularly opportunities to become legal. The gendered social relations of neighborhood, work, and voluntary associations interact to produce this outcome. The conclusions suggest that social networks can both strengthen and weaken over time, can change differentially for different segments of the immigrant community, and therefore can have disparate effects on incorporation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jouce P. Jacobsen, Laurence M. Levin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 291-304.
This article examines recent internal migration patterns for the United States workforce and contrasts household earnings outcomes for movers and nonmovers by sex and marital status. Three aspects of how migration affects the relative economic status of women and men are considered: 1) the importance of relative economic opportunities for husband and wife for the decision as to whether or not to move; 2) actual economic outcomes for movers relative to nonmovers; and 3) the effect of moving on relative earnings within married-couple households. It is found that the decision to move is consistent with a common preference model of household decision-making and that the recently available range of opportunities to migrate has had little effect on the earnings composition of married-couple and single male households, but has benefited single women.
The material and the symbolic in theorizing social stratification: Issues of gender, ethnicity and class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Floya Anthias British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 367-390.
Within most approaches to stratification gender and ethnicity are seen to pertain primarily to the symbolic or cultural realms, while class is regarded as pertaining to material inequality. This constructs gender and ethnic positioning as entailing honor, deference, worth, value and differential treatment (sometimes expressed through the notion of status), but the social relations around these are themselves not seen as constitutive of social stratification. This study rethinks social stratification away from the polarity between the material and the symbolic, and argues that material inequality, as a set of outcomes relating to life conditions, life chances and solidary processes, is informed by claims and struggles over resources of different types, undertaken in terms of gender, ethnicity/race and class. This formulation allows for the inclusion of these categorial formations, alongside class, as important elements of social stratification i.e. as determining the allocation of socially valued resources and social places/locations.
The Return on Women's Human Capital and the Role of Male Attitudes Toward Working Wives: Gender Roles, Work Interruption, and Women's Earnings in Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Hwei-Lin Chuang, Hsih-Yin Lee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 435-.
This study empirically investigates women's work interruption behavior in Taiwan and this behavior's influence on women's earnings. The most striking finding from our analysis of women's work history patterns is that a husband's negative attitude toward a working wife will more greatly discourage his wife from attaching to the labor market than will the presence of young children in the family. Thus, it is critical to educate men to give up their traditional attitudes toward gender roles in order to raise the female labor force participation rate in Taiwan. As to the effect of work interruption on earnings, a depreciation rate of 2.8[percent] is found for women with at least a high-school level of education, while no penalty of foregone experience is shown for less-educated women. Since this depreciation effect may discourage women from re-entering the labor market, government programs encouraging self-employment should be helpful, as self-employed women find it easier to overcome the conflict between family obligations and work needs.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Robert M. Blackburn, Bradley Brooks, Jennifer Jarman Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 511-538.
This article presents a new approach to measuring the most important dimension of gender segregation the vertical dimension in quantitative survey data. This, in turn, allows for a reassessment of the view that high levels of gender segregation are synonymous with high levels of social inequality. In order to do this, the article also draws upon significant conceptual developments. Segregation as it is commonly understood is named as overall segregation, and is the resultant of two components, horizontal and vertical segregation, representing difference and inequality separately. This provides a clear approach to measurement. The argument is developed with a case study of the British labour force. The pattern of segregation, in terms of its overall level and its components, varies considerably across sections of the labour force. In terms of inequality, the vertical components measured indicate that British women working full-time are more advantaged than we would expect, and that women working in part-time manual occupations, though facing the greatest relative disadvantage in terms of pay, are actually slightly advantaged over men working in manual occupations in terms of social stratification. Although overall segregation has remained relatively unchanged over the five year period from 1991 to 1996, there have been some significant changes to its components within the various sections of the employed British labour force in that time. By looking at the various sections of the labour force, relative to the labour force as a whole, we can achieve a better understanding of how segregation operates with respect to gender inequalities.
Wages and unequal access to organizational power: An empirical test of gender discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mia Hultin, Ryszard Szulkin Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 3. P. 453-472.
This study of Swedish workers investigates gender wage inequality, specifically, whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of establishments' managerial and supervisory staff. Theoretical arguments focus on managers' propensity to create and maintain or to undermine institutionalized gender bias and employees' capacity to mobilize resources and establish claims in the wage distribution process, mainly through social networks. Results show that gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures is essential in explaining women's relatively low wages. Women who work in establishments in which relatively many of the managers are men have lower wages than women with similar qualifications and job demands in establishments with more women in the power structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-03-2003John H. Goldthorpe Sociology. 1983. Vol. 17. No. 4. P. 465-476; 477-488 .
Обсуждается проблематика гендерного неравенства как часть стратификационных исследований. Задача автора - опровергнуть (теретически и эмпирически) ряд тезисов феминистских исследований. Для этого проводится различие между двумя линиями аргументации относительно позиции семьи в системе социальной стратификации - между функционалистской теорией социальной стратификации и европейской традицией исследования социальных классов, анализируются эмпирические данные и трудности, которые возникают при использовании гендерного измерения в стратификационных исследованиях.