American Sociological Review
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Irene Browne American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 236-252.
For the first time in this century, Black women are participating in the labor force at lower rates than are White women. The Black-White gap in female labor force participation is driven by those in the severest need of income-women heading households. I compare three explanations of the Black-White gap in labor force participation among female household heads-lack of human capital, lack of opportunities resulting from industrial restructuring, and disarticulation from mainstream institutions as described by theories of the "underclass." Using a representative national sample from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I find that lower rates of labor force participation among Black women heading households are determined by Black-White differences in human capital as well as by characteristics associated with a breakdown in the processes linking Black women to the labor market. Overall, the largest impediments to labor force participation among women heading households are dropping out of high school, having a child under the age of six in the household, and being a long-term welfare recipient.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Jimy M. Sanders, Victor Nee American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 231-249.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Ted Mouw American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 730-753.
The spatial mismatch hypothesis argues that residential segregation and job decentralization combine to adversely affect the employment opportunities of minorities. While employment is increasingly located outside of central cities, residential segregation prevents minorities from moving closer to suburban jobs. Although this hypothesis has intuitive appeal, there is little consensus regarding its empirical validity. This study (1) constructs detailed geographic measures of changes in employment opportunities, (2) estimates a fixed-effects model of changes in the unemployment rate over time, and (3) accounts for spatial correlation in the error term. Neighborhood-level employment data from 1980 and 1990 are used to measure changes in the distance to jobs from census tracts in the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas. In both cities, the decentralization of employment and the loss of manufacturing jobs resulted in substantial changes in the spatial distribution of employment. The empirical results indicate that a decline in the spatial proximity to employment is associated with an increase in the unemployment rate for blacks.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Alejandro Portes, Min Zhou American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 219-230.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Jacqueline M. Hagan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 55-67.
Most research on social networks and immigrant incorporation focuses on the short-term and positive functions of networks, neglecting changes in networks over time. Author present a dynamic and variable portrayal of networks to demonstrate how they gradually assume different forms and functions for women and for men that differentially affect settlement outcomes, particularly opportunities to become legal. The gendered social relations of neighborhood, work, and voluntary associations interact to produce this outcome. The conclusions suggest that social networks can both strengthen and weaken over time, can change differentially for different segments of the immigrant community, and therefore can have disparate effects on incorporation.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-09-2003Jeffrey W. Lucas American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 464-.
Socially disadvantaged individuals often encounter resistance when they rise to high-status positions. For example, women, according to status characteristics theory, will be disadvantaged relative to men in social interactions, other things being equal. Institutionalizing women as leaders may overcome such disadvantages. Drawing from status characteristics theory and institutional theory, it is predicted that institutionalization of female leadership can reduce the influence gap between women and men by legitimating structures of female leadership. Results of an experiment conducted to test this idea show that, as predicted, male leaders attained higher influence than did female leaders, and leaders appointed on ability attained higher influence than did randomly assigned leaders. Institutionalization, however, reduced the advantage of men such that female leaders appointed on ability when female leadership was institutionalized attained influence as high as male leaders appointed on ability when female leadership was not institutionalized.
Temporal Differentiation in the Occupational Mobility of Immigrant and Native-Born Latina Workers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Dowell Myers, Cynthia J. Cranford American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 68-93.
We estimate changes over time in the occupational participation of Latina workers. Applying a "double cohort" method for longitudinal analysis with census data, we clarify the effects of economic restructuring and economic assimilation. We investigate multiple temporal effects: immigration cohort, birth cohort, age at migration, duration in the United States, and advancing age. The analysis compares Latinas in southern California who are employed in low-wage factory jobs with Latinas employed in better-paying office jobs. Results indicate sharp temporal differentiation among the Latina workers, even after controlling for human capital. The newest arrivals concentrate in the growing light-manufacturing sector and remain there, to a relative degree, across subsequent decades. Workers who immigrated as young children (referred to as the 1.5 generation) diverge from their parents and tend to be employed in office jobs--a pattern similar to young native-born Latinas. Within cohorts' careers, workers shift out of factory jobs, but there is little net shift into office work. Instead, cohort succession is the dominant factor in workers' adaptation to a changing economic structure. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Alejandro Portes, William J. Haller, Luis Eduardo Guarnizo American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 278-298.
The recent literature on immigrant transnationalism points to an alternative form of economic adaptation of foreign minorities in advanced societies that is based on the mobilization of their cross-country social networks. Case studies have noted the phenomenon's potential significance for immigrant integration into receiving countries and for the economic development in countries of origin. Despite their suggestive character, these studies consistently sample on the dependent variable (transnationalism), failing to establish the empirical existence of these activities beyond a few descriptive examples and their possible determinants. These issues are addressed using a survey designed explicitly for this purpose and conducted among selected Latin immigrant groups in the United States. Although immigrant transnationalism has received little attention in the mainstream sociological literature so far, it has the potential of altering the character of the new ethnic communities spawned by contemporary immigration. The empirical existence of transnationalism is examined on the basis of discriminant functions of migrant characteristics, and the relative probabilities of engaging in these kinds of activities is established based on hypotheses drawn from the literature. Implications for the sociology of immigration as well as for broader sociological theories of the economy are discussed. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.